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Recent evidence suggests that letter and semantic category verbal fluency tasks may use different component processes of a distributed word retrieval system. We hypothesized that the retrieval of words that begin with the same letter places greater demands on frontal lobe mediated strategic search processes than on temporal lobe mediated semantic knowledge.(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral effects of anticholinergic, antidopaminergic, and antiserotonergic agents given alone and in combination to normal volunteers. Twelve young male volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of six drug conditions, each administered on(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence from animal and human experiments that learning and memory come under the separate influence of both cholinergic and serotonergic pathways. We were interested in learning whether serotonergic drugs could attenuate or exacerbate the memory-impairing effects of anticholinergic blockade in humans. METHODS The selective serotonin(More)
Cholinergic neurotransmission is thought to be modulated by serotonin as documented in animal and human studies. We examined the effects of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.4 mg IV) given alone or together with the serotonin mixed agonist/antagonistm-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP, 0.08 mg/kg IV), and the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify patterns of maternal antibodies associated with an increased risk of having a child with congenital heart block (CHB) and to provide a basis for counseling women with a previously affected child. METHODS This retrospective clinical study of the obstetric histories of 46 Finnish women with a CHB child compared the strength and(More)
BACKGROUND Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) occur in 30-40% of primary breast cancer patients. An impaired bone microenvironment may lead to reduced bone density and osteoporosis affecting the BM as a homing site for DTCs. The bone mineral density (BMD) and its correlation to DTC in BM was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred(More)
Patterns of memory performance were examined for 9 participants with HIV-associated dementia (HAD), 15 HIV-seropositive participants without dementia, and 15 HIV-seronegative controls. Episodic and semantic memory were assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, and Verbal Fluency tests. The HAD group showed deficits in(More)
BACKGROUND Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. METHODS In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased(More)