Christopher M. Wiethoff

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Although viruses are simple in structure and composition, their interactions with host cells are complex. Merely to gain entry, animal viruses make use of a repertoire of cellular processes that involve hundreds of cellular proteins. Although some viruses have the capacity to penetrate into the cytosol directly through the plasma membrane, most depend on(More)
In contrast to enveloped viruses, the mechanisms involved in membrane penetration by nonenveloped viruses are not as well understood. In these studies, we determined the relationship between adenovirus (Ad) capsid disassembly and the development of membrane lytic activity. Exposure to low pH or heating induced conformational changes in wild-type Ad but not(More)
α-synuclein dysregulation is a critical aspect of Parkinson's disease pathology. Recent studies have observed that α-synuclein aggregates are cytotoxic to cells in culture and that this toxicity can be spread between cells. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this cytotoxicity and spread are poorly characterized. Recent studies of viruses and(More)
Viruses use cellular machinery to enter and infect cells. In this study we address the cell entry mechanisms of nonenveloped adenoviruses (Ads). We show that protein VI, an internal capsid protein, is rapidly exposed after cell surface attachment and internalization and remains partially associated with the capsid during intracellular transport. We found(More)
Adenovirus (Ad) membrane penetration during cell entry is poorly understood. Here we show that antibodies which neutralize the membrane lytic activity of the Ad capsid protein VI interfere with Ad endosomal membrane penetration. In vitro studies using a peptide corresponding to an N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix of protein VI (VI-Phi), as well as other(More)
Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection of macrophages results in rapid secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and is dependent on the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC and the catalytic activity of caspase-1. Using lentivirus-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and competitive inhibitors, we show that Ad-induced IL-1β release is dependent upon Toll-like(More)
In response to viral infection, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate innate immune signaling or generate danger signals to activate immune cells. The mechanisms of virally induced ROS are poorly defined, however. We demonstrate that ROS are produced within minutes of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection of macrophages and that oxidative stress supports(More)
The structure of the adenovirus type 2 temperature-sensitive mutant 1 (Ad2ts1) was determined to a resolution of 10 A by cryo-electron microscopy single-particle reconstruction. Ad2ts1 was prepared at a nonpermissive temperature and contains the precursor forms of the capsid proteins IIIa, VI, and VIII; the core proteins VII, X (mu), and terminal protein(More)
Adenovirus (Ad) endosomal membrane penetration activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by releasing lysosomal cathepsin B (catB) into the cytoplasm. We therefore examined the extent to which inflammasome activation correlates with Ad colocalization with catB-enriched lysosomes. Inflammasome activation, is greater during infections with Ad5 possessing an Ad16 fiber(More)
A key step in adenovirus cell entry is viral penetration of cellular membranes to gain access to the cytoplasm and deliver the genome to the nucleus. Yet little is known about this important event in the adenoviral life cycle. Using the cytosolic protein galectin-3 (gal3) as a marker of membrane rupture with both live- and fixed-cell imaging, we demonstrate(More)