Transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperatures and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin. Compounds containing peppermint are reported to reduce symptoms of bowel hypersensitivity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. Here we determined the role of TRPM8 in colonic sensory… (More)
AIMS Members of the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) family are strong candidates as mechanical transducers in sensory function. The authors have shown that ASIC1a has no role in skin but a clear influence in gastrointestinal mechanotransduction. Here they investigate further ASIC1a in gut mechanoreceptors, and compare its influence with ASIC2 and ASIC3. … (More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Visceral mechanoreceptors are critical for perceived sensations and autonomic reflex control of gastrointestinal function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying visceral mechanosensation remain poorly defined. Degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family ion channels are candidate mechanosensory molecules, and we hypothesized… (More)
The Deg/ENaC family of ion channels, including ASIC1, 2 and 3, are candidate mechanotransducers in visceral and somatic sensory neurons, although each channel may play a different role in different sensory pathways. Here we determined which distinct populations of visceral sensory neurons are sensitive to the non-selective Deg/ENaC blocker benzamil, and… (More)
Protease-activated receptor (PAR(2)) is expressed by nociceptive neurons and activated during inflammation by proteases from mast cells, the intestinal lumen, and the circulation. Agonists of PAR(2) cause hyperexcitability of intestinal sensory neurons and hyperalgesia to distensive stimuli by unknown mechanisms. We evaluated the role of the transient… (More)
Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGluR5) antagonists are effective in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The involvement of mGluR5 in visceral pain pathways from the gastrointestinal tract is as yet unknown. We evaluated effects of mGluR5 antagonists on the colorectal distension (CRD)-evoked visceromotor (VMR) and cardiovascular responses… (More)
Here we present a dual kinematic formulation of limit analysis as a second-order cone programming problem, employing linear strain finite elements with a continuous displacement field. The result is a powerful tool for obtaining rigorous and tight upper bounds for very large discretized structures.