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There is an infinity of impedance parameter values, and thus different co-contraction levels, that can produce similar movement kinematics from which the CNS must select one. Although signal-dependent noise (SDN) predicts larger motor-command variability during higher co-contraction, the relationship between impedance and task performance is not(More)
Visually guided saccades to single targets undershoot by about 10% of the target distance, and require additional secondary saccades to foveate the target. We examine theoretically the hypothesis that undershooting is an economical strategy for maximizing the time for clear vision by minimizing saccadic flight-time. Using a simple stochastic model,(More)
In primates, it is well known that there is a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic eye movements, known as the 'main sequence'. The reason why such a stereotyped relationship evolved is unknown. We propose that a fundamental constraint on the deployment of foveal vision lies in the motor system that is(More)
48 subjects meeting strict diagnostic criteria for psychogenic impotence took part in a 10 week placebo-controlled, double-blind, partial crossover trial of yohimbine (18 mg a day) for restoring erectile function. At the end of the first arm of the trial 62% of the yohimbine group and 16% of the placebo group reported some improvement in sexual function(More)
PURPOSE Optokinetic stimulation induces nystagmus that can be used to test the saccadic and visual-tracking systems in some patients with voluntary gaze palsies. The purpose of this study was to characterize vertical optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in normal human subjects, comparing the dynamic properties of the quick phases with voluntary saccades of similar(More)
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a fundamental gaze-stabilizing response found in almost all vertebrates, in which eye movements attempt to compensate for the optic flow caused by self-motion. It is an alternating sequence of slow compensatory eye movements made in the direction of stimulus motion and fast eye movements made predominantly in the opposite(More)
Congenital nystagmus (CN) is an incurable pathological spontaneous oscillation of the eyes with an onset in the first few months of life. The pathophysiology of CN is mysterious. There is no consistent neurological abnormality, but the majority of patients have a wide range of unrelated congenital visual abnormalities affecting either the cornea, lens,(More)
INTRODUCTION Problems associated with the standard apnea test relate to overshooting or undershooting the target PaCO2, potentially compromising the viability of organs for transplantation or invalidating the test. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 60 adult patients, the authors used an alternative method using exogenously administered CO2 and measurement of(More)
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has improved the quality of life in patients with Gaucher disease (GD). An emerging concern is whether ERT can also halt the neurologic progression in type 3 GD. The authors examined the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in eight children with type 3 GD undergoing high-dose ERT and found a consistent deterioration in ABR(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of miglustat, concomitant with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), in patients with Gaucher's disease type 3 (GD3). METHODS This 24-month, phase II, open-label clinical trial of miglustat in GD3 was conducted in two phases. During the initial 12 months, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive miglustat or "no(More)