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Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect,(More)
Although it is well known that there is considerable variation among individuals in the size of the human brain, the etiology of less extreme individual differences in brain size is largely unknown. We present here data from the first large twin sample (N=132 individuals) in which the size of brain structures has been measured. As part of an ongoing project(More)
OBJECTIVE Memory impairment is common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study examined hippocampal volumes and neurometabolic alterations in relation to memory function in SLE patients without a history of neuropsychiatric syndromes (nonNPSLE). METHODS Subjects included 81 nonNPSLE patients and 34 healthy controls. Volumetric(More)
In contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD), which predominantly affects the limbic system and association neocortex, degenerative dementias have been identified that show greatest damage in frontal and temporal neocortex. This "lobar atrophy" was first described by Arnold Pick over 100 years ago. We present four autopsy-documented, non-AD cases of(More)
We assayed cytochrome oxidase and other electron transport chain activities in platelet mitochondria isolated from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Five of 6 patients had striking reductions of platelet cytochrome oxidase activity (patient mean, 83.72 +/- 82.99 nmol/min/mg; control mean, 167.14 +/- 36.21 nmol/min/mg; n = 8). Other electron transport(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce persistent attention and memory impairment that may in part be produced by impaired auditory sensory gating. The P50 evoked waveform response to paired auditory stimuli appears to be a useful measure of auditory gating. The first controlled measurement of the P50 ratio in TBI patients is described: when 20 patients(More)
Behavioral neurology has primarily focused on brain-behavior relations as revealed by disorders of the cerebral cortex and subcortical gray matter. Disorders of cerebral white matter have received less attention. This article considers the contribution of cerebral white matter to normal behavioral function and the effects of white matter disorders on(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial source of mortality and morbidity world wide. Although most such injuries are relatively mild, accurate diagnosis and prognostication after mild TBI are challenging. These problems are complicated further when considered in medicolegal contexts, particularly civil litigation. Cerebral single photon emission(More)
Seventy-two veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or both participated in assessment procedures to evaluate between group differences. Half the sample was randomly selected for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurologic examinations were conducted using the Neurologic Rating Scale (NRS). Neuropsychological(More)