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Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine neuropsychological and neurologic functioning in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients without histories of overt neuropsychiatric disorders (non-NPSLE patients). METHODS Sixty-seven non-NPSLE patients and 29 healthy controls were administered a standardized neurologic examination and measures of cognition, depression, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Memory impairment is common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study examined hippocampal volumes and neurometabolic alterations in relation to memory function in SLE patients without a history of neuropsychiatric syndromes (nonNPSLE). METHODS Subjects included 81 nonNPSLE patients and 34 healthy controls. Volumetric(More)
In this review, we emphasize neuropathologic and neurobehavioral aspects of central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (CPM/EPM), also known as the osmotic demyelination syndrome. The literature is reviewed from the time of the initial report in 1959 and from key developments that have occurred more recently. Particular consideration is given to(More)
Although it is well known that there is considerable variation among individuals in the size of the human brain, the etiology of less extreme individual differences in brain size is largely unknown. We present here data from the first large twin sample (N=132 individuals) in which the size of brain structures has been measured. As part of an ongoing project(More)
Behavioral neurology has primarily focused on brain-behavior relations as revealed by disorders of the cerebral cortex and subcortical gray matter. Disorders of cerebral white matter have received less attention. This article considers the contribution of cerebral white matter to normal behavioral function and the effects of white matter disorders on(More)
In contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD), which predominantly affects the limbic system and association neocortex, degenerative dementias have been identified that show greatest damage in frontal and temporal neocortex. This "lobar atrophy" was first described by Arnold Pick over 100 years ago. We present four autopsy-documented, non-AD cases of(More)
We assayed cytochrome oxidase and other electron transport chain activities in platelet mitochondria isolated from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Five of 6 patients had striking reductions of platelet cytochrome oxidase activity (patient mean, 83.72 +/- 82.99 nmol/min/mg; control mean, 167.14 +/- 36.21 nmol/min/mg; n = 8). Other electron transport(More)
We describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 6 chronic toluene vapor abusers and the neuropathological findings in 1 abuser not studied by MRI. MRI in 6 chronic toluene abusers revealed the following abnormalities: (1) diffuse cerebral, cerebellar, and brainstem atrophy; (2) loss of differentiation between the gray and white(More)