Learn More
Determining how a protein folds is a central problem in structural biology. The rate of folding of many proteins is determined by the transition state, so that a knowledge of its structure is essential for understanding the protein folding reaction. Here we use mutation measurements--which determine the role of individual residues in stabilizing the(More)
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy--for obtaining experimental information at the atomic level about the structural and dynamical features(More)
The manner in which a newly synthesized chain of amino acids transforms itself into a perfectly folded protein depends both on the intrinsic properties of the amino-acid sequence and on multiple contributing influences from the crowded cellular milieu. Folding and unfolding are crucial ways of regulating biological activity and targeting proteins to(More)
In order for any biological system to function effectively, it is essential to avoid the inherent tendency of proteins to aggregate and form potentially harmful deposits. In each of the various pathological conditions associated with protein deposition, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, a specific peptide or protein that is normally soluble is(More)
Tissue deposition of soluble proteins as amyloid fibrils underlies a range of fatal diseases. The two naturally occurring human lysozyme variants are both amyloidogenic, and are shown here to be unstable. They aggregate to form amyloid fibrils with transformation of the mainly helical native fold, observed in crystal structures, to the amyloid fibril(More)
Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The(More)
Protein molecules have the ability to form a rich variety of natural and artificial structures and materials. We show that amyloid fibrils, ordered supramolecular nanostructures that are self-assembled from a wide range of polypeptide molecules, have rigidities varying over four orders of magnitude, and constitute a class of high-performance biomaterials.(More)
Analysis of the folding of hen lysozyme shows that the protein does not become organized in a single cooperative event but that different parts of the structure become stabilized with very different kinetics. In particular, in most molecules the alpha-helical domain folds faster than the beta-sheet domain. Furthermore, different populations of molecules(More)
Reversible phosphorylation is the most common posttranslational modification used in the regulation of cellular processes. This study of phosphatases and kinases required for peroxisome biogenesis is the first genome-wide analysis of phosphorylation events controlling organelle biogenesis. We evaluate signaling molecule deletion strains of the yeast(More)
The thermal denaturation of streptokinase from Streptococcus equisimilis (SK) together with that of a set of fragments encompassing each of its three domains has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analysis of the effects of pH, sample concentration and heating rates on the DSC thermograms has allowed us to find conditions where(More)