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Peptides or proteins convert under some conditions from their soluble forms into highly ordered fibrillar aggregates. Such transitions can give rise to pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we identify the diseases known to be associated with formation of fibrillar aggregates and the(More)
Pulse field gradient NMR methods have been used to determine the effective hydrodynamic radii of a range of native and nonnative protein conformations. From these experimental data, empirical relationships between the measured hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) and the number of residues in the polypeptide chain (N) have been established; for native folded proteins(More)
The manner in which a newly synthesized chain of amino acids transforms itself into a perfectly folded protein depends both on the intrinsic properties of the amino-acid sequence and on multiple contributing influences from the crowded cellular milieu. Folding and unfolding are crucial ways of regulating biological activity and targeting proteins to(More)
The phenomenon of protein aggregation and amyloid formation has become the subject of rapidly increasing research activities across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Such activities have been stimulated by the association of amyloid deposition with a range of debilitating medical disorders, from Alzheimer's disease to type II diabetes, many of which(More)
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy--for obtaining experimental information at the atomic level about the structural and dynamical features(More)
Determining how a protein folds is a central problem in structural biology. The rate of folding of many proteins is determined by the transition state, so that a knowledge of its structure is essential for understanding the protein folding reaction. Here we use mutation measurements--which determine the role of individual residues in stabilizing the(More)
Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The(More)
15N-labeled hen lysozyme has been studied by 2D and 3D NMR in order to characterize its dynamic behavior. The resonances of all main-chain amide nitrogen atoms were assigned, as were resonances of nitrogen atoms in 28 side chains. Relaxation measurements for the main-chain and arginine and tryptophan side-chain 15N nuclei used standard methods, and those(More)
Tissue deposition of soluble proteins as amyloid fibrils underlies a range of fatal diseases. The two naturally occurring human lysozyme variants are both amyloidogenic, and are shown here to be unstable. They aggregate to form amyloid fibrils with transformation of the mainly helical native fold, observed in crystal structures, to the amyloid fibril(More)