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Rapid removal of glutamate from the extracellular space is required for the survival and normal function of neurons. Although glutamate transporters are expressed by all CNS cell types, astrocytes are the cell type primarily responsible for glutamate uptake. Astrocyte glutamate uptake also plays a role in regulating the activity of glutamatergic synapses.(More)
Currently available antibodies to the P2X(7) receptor are unreliable determinants of neuronal P2X(7) immunoreactivity, owing to staining of a "P2X(7)-like" protein that is not eliminated by legitimate P2X(7) gene-knockout approaches. Despite this, compelling electrophysiological and pharmacological data strongly support a role for P2X(7) receptors in(More)
Astrocyte glutamate release can modulate synaptic activity and participate in brain intercellular signaling. P2X7 receptors form large ion channels when activated by ATP or other ligands. Here we show that P2X7 receptors provide a route for excitatory amino acid release from astrocytes. Studies were performed using murine cortical astrocyte cultures. ATP(More)
Glycogen in the brain is localized almost exclusively to astrocytes. The physiological function of this energy store has been difficult to establish because of the difficulty in manipulating brain glycogen concentrations in vivo. Here, we used a novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor, CP-316,819(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from putative interneurones (n = 24) and thalamocortical (TC) projection neurones (n = 45) in slice preparations of the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in order to compare the electrophysiological properties of these neuronal types. 2. Intracellular injection of biocytin to electrophysiologically identified(More)
Glutamate transporters clear glutamate from the extracellular space by high-affinity binding and uptake. Factors that regulate glutamate transporter expression and activity can thereby influence excitatory neurotransmission. Transporter function in GABAergic and other systems has been shown to be regulated by transporter substrates. Here, glutamate(More)
The ataxia (ax(J)) mutation is a spontaneous recessive mutation that results in reduced expression of ubiquitin-specific protease 14, Usp14. Mice homozygous for the ax(J) mutation are retarded for growth and exhibit several behavioral disorders, including a resting tremor and hindlimb paralysis. Although pathological defects appear to be limited to the(More)
Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) normally function to remove extracellular glutamate from brain extracellular space, but EAATs can also increase extracellular glutamate by reversal of uptake. Effects of inhibitors on EAATs can be complex, depending on cell type, whether conditions favor glutamate uptake or uptake reversal and(More)
Characterization of astrocyte Ca2+ dynamics has been a topic of considerable emphasis for more than a decade. Only recently, however, has the physiological significance of astrocyte Ca2+ signaling started to become clear. Several studies have shown that astrocyte Ca2+ levels become elevated in response to neuronal input and that this, in turn, influences(More)
Nucleoside transporters may play a role in regulating levels of extracellular adenosine and adenosine receptor activity. Two members of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family have recently been cloned. ENT1 is potently inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) (K(i) approximately 1 nM) and was previously found to have a wide distribution in rat(More)