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The brain is not a passive sensory-motor analyzer driven by environmental stimuli, but actively maintains ongoing representations that may be involved in the coding of expected sensory stimuli, prospective motor responses, and prior experience. Spontaneous cortical activity has been proposed to play an important part in maintaining these ongoing, internal(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal during restful wakefulness are coherent within distributed large-scale cortical and subcortical networks (resting state networks, RSNs). The neuronal mechanisms underlying RSNs remain poorly understood. Here,(More)
Correlations in spontaneous brain activity provide powerful access to large-scale organizational principles of the CNS. However, making inferences about cognitive processes requires a detailed understanding of the link between these couplings and the structural integrity of the CNS. We studied the impact of multiple sclerosis, which leads to the severe(More)
The Wharton Financial Institutions Center provides a multidisciplinary research approach to the problems and opportunities facing the financial services industry in its search for competitive excellence. The Center's research focuses on the issues related to managing risk at the firm level as well as ways to improve productivity and performance. The Center(More)
, is the most costly catastrophic event in history, with projected insured losses in the range of $40 to $60 billion. The most costly prior natural catastrophe was Hurricane Andrew in 1992, which cost insurers $22.3 billion. The most costly man-made disaster was the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York, which(More)
People differ in their ability to perform novel perceptual tasks, both during initial exposure and in the rate of improvement with practice. It is also known that regions of the brain recruited by particular tasks change their activity during learning. Here we investigate neural signals predictive of individual variability in performance. We used(More)
The right postero-lateral cerebellum participates with the left frontal lobe in the selection and production of words. Using fMRI, we examined whether cerebellar activity switches hemispheres in parallel with recruitment of putative compensatory right homologous frontal regions in post-stroke aphasia. Re-examining the data of Blasi et al. [Blasi, V., Young,(More)
The Wharton Financial Institutions Center provides a multidisciplinary research approach to the problems and opportunities facing the financial services industry in its search for competitive excellence. The Center's research focuses on the issues related to managing risk at the firm level as well as ways to improve productivity and performance. The Center(More)
131 Policymakers view privatization as a way of reducing the government's fiscal burden. But explicit and implicit government guarantees provided as part of the privatization process often expose governments to considerable risk—which is rarely reflected on the government's balance sheet. The contingent nature of this risk exposes governments to the(More)