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The brachiocephalic arteries of fat-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice develop plaques that frequently rupture and form luminal thromboses. The morphological characteristics of plaques without evidence of instability or with healed previous ruptures (intact) and vessels with acutely ruptured plaques (ruptured) have now been defined, to understand the(More)
BACKGROUND These studies examined the early time course of plaque development and destabilization in the brachiocephalic artery of the apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse, the effects of pravastatin thereon, and the effects of pravastatin on established unstable plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS Male apolipoprotein E-knockout mice were fed a high-fat,(More)
Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels(More)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is highly prevalent in end-stage renal disease. Several observational studies, based on an echocardiographic diagnosis of PH, have suggested a prevalence of 30-60% and an association with increased mortality and poorer outcome following renal transplantation. The pathogenesis of PH in this population remains poorly understood.(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the nerve growth factor (NGF)-related family of neutrophins, promotes the survival and differentiation of cultured nigral dopamine neurons. Two-week infusions of BDNF were made above the right pars compacta of the substantia nigra in adult rats. Systemic injection of these animals with (+)-amphetamine, a(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to be involved in the growth, destabilization, and eventual rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. Using the mouse brachiocephalic artery model of plaque instability, we compared apolipoprotein E (apoE)/MMP-3, apoE/MMP-7, apoE/MMP-9, and apoE/MMP-12 double knockouts with their age-, strain-, and sex-matched apoE(More)
The neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) were compared for their effects in promoting the survival and/or regulation of expression of phenotypic markers of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in cultures derived from embryonic rat ventral mesencephalon. Dopaminergic neuron number and(More)
There is an urgent need for representative animal models where prospective examination of the events leading up to plaque rupture and the rupture process itself can be performed. Recently, reports have begun to emerge that apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice may spontaneously develop unstable atherosclerosis, with plaques in(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the survival of dopamine (DA) neurons, enhances expression of DA neuron characteristics, and protects these cells from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity in vitro. We tested the ability of BDNF or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to exert similar protective effects in vivo during chronic delivery of 6-OHDA to the rat(More)
OBJECTIVE Lysosomal proteinases have been implicated in a number of pathologies associated with extracellular matrix breakdown. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. METHODS AND RESULTS Atherosclerotic plaques in the brachiocephalic arteries of(More)