Christopher L Stone

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The psychomotor stimulant cocaine is inactivated primarily by hydrolysis to benzoylecgonine, the major urinary metabolite of the drug. A non-specific carboxylesterase was purified from human liver that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. In the presence of ethanol, the enzyme also catalyzes the(More)
Mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be involved in the reversible oxidation of vitamin A or retinol to retinal for retinoic acid synthesis. Retinoic acid is a potent transcriptional regulator and a morphogen. It was proposed that the competition of consumed ethanol with retinol oxidation by ADH might explain developmental disorders seen with(More)
This study was undertaken to identify the cytosolic 40-kDa zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases that oxidize all-trans-retinol and steroid alcohols in fetal tissues. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction 500-base pair fragments of alcohol dehydrogenase cDNAs from chick embryo limb buds and heart. cDNA(More)
To understand the relative importance of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes in gastric ethanol metabolism, a stomach-specific ADH (sigma-ADH) was purified to homogeneity from human transplant donor and surgical tissues, and its activity for ethanol oxidation was examined. The enzyme from these tissues had a specific activity at pH 10 of approximately 70(More)
A full-length 1966-base pair clone of the human class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (sigma-ADH) was isolated from a human stomach cDNA library. The 373-amino acid sigma-ADH encoded by this cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme for ethanol oxidation at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C, calculated from active-site titration(More)
The three-dimensional structures of three variants of human beta alcohol dehydrogenase have been determined to 2.5 A resolution. These three structures differ only in the amino acid at position 47 and the molecules occupying the alcohol binding site. Human beta 1 alcohol dehydrogenase has an Arg at position 47 and was crystallized in a complex with NAD(H)(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the human beta3beta3 dimeric alcohol dehydrogenase (beta3) was determined to 2.4-A resolution. beta3 was crystallized as a ternary complex with the coenzyme NAD+ and the competitive inhibitor 4-iodopyrazole. beta3 is a polymorphic variant at ADH2 that differs from beta1 by a single amino acid substitution of Arg-369 -->(More)
The human liver alpha alpha alcohol dehydrogenase exhibits a different substrate specificity and stereospecificity for secondary alcohols than the human beta 1 beta 1, and gamma 1 gamma 1 or horse liver alcohol dehydrogenases. All of the enzymes efficiently oxidize primary alcohols, but alpha alpha oxidizes secondary alcohols far more efficiently than human(More)
Formaldehyde, a major industrial chemical, is classified as a carcinogen because of its high reactivity with DNA. It is inactivated by oxidative metabolism to formate in humans by glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase. This NAD(+)-dependent enzyme belongs to the family of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases with 40 kDa subunits and is also(More)