Christopher John Murphy

Learn More
PURPOSE The validity of retinoscopy in small eyes has not been clearly established due to uncertainty regarding the source of the ocular reflections assessed during this procedure. A widely cited model which proposes that their origin is the inner limiting membrane of the retina was evaluated in the rat by comparing refractive errors measured by retinoscopy(More)
The presence of lower-field myopia (described in chickens, pigeons, quail and amphibians) allows these animals to keep the ground in focus while performing other visual tasks. A relationship has also been reported between the eye height and the degree of myopia observed. All of the animals reported in the literature to date are ground-foraging species.(More)
PURPOSE To describe the detailed anatomy of the ciliary region of the chicken eye. METHODS Fifty-two eyes from White Leghorn chickens were examined in the course of this study. Descriptions are based on specimens examined using microdissection and bright field microscopy of sections embedded in paraffin or epon. Microdissection was assisted through the(More)
We have studied natural accommodation in the eye of six specimens of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) as they were fed with fish and shrimp. Using infrared photoretinoscopy, we observed (1) that the resting refractive state of the cuttlefish was emmetropic or slightly hyperopic, (2) that accommodation took place only a fraction of a second before a strike and(More)
Understanding axonal formation and contact guidance are of critical importance for the design of materials that interface with neuronal tissue. Contact guidance of neurites by topographic features is well known, but the role that topography plays in the modulation of neuritogenesis has not been addressed. To test this, we cultured PC12 cells with a range of(More)
There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the nature of the musculature of the avian iris. The most commonly held view is that both the sphincter and dilator are striated. The iris of the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) has a complex iridial musculature consisting of three circumferential components (a myoepithelium, smooth muscle and(More)
PURPOSE To determine the impact of substratum stiffness and latrunculin-B (Lat-B), on the expression of several matrix proteins that are associated with glaucoma. METHODS Human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells were cultured on hydrogels possessing stiffness values mimicking those found in normal (5 kPa) and glaucomatous meshworks (75 kPa), or tissue(More)
In the chick eye, accommodation for near objects is brought about by changes in the focal length of the lens and by changes in the corneal radius of curvature. Several different mechanisms of lenticular accommodation have been proposed for the avian eye. These include a role for the ciliary muscle, a role for the iris muscle, and a role for changes in(More)