Christopher John Murphy

Learn More
PURPOSE The validity of retinoscopy in small eyes has not been clearly established due to uncertainty regarding the source of the ocular reflections assessed during this procedure. A widely cited model which proposes that their origin is the inner limiting membrane of the retina was evaluated in the rat by comparing refractive errors measured by retinoscopy(More)
The presence of lower-field myopia (described in chickens, pigeons, quail and amphibians) allows these animals to keep the ground in focus while performing other visual tasks. A relationship has also been reported between the eye height and the degree of myopia observed. All of the animals reported in the literature to date are ground-foraging species.(More)
PURPOSE Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is characterized by inflammation and decreased production of tears containing increased levels of cytokines. The release occurs in the setting of conjunctival and lacrimal gland inflammation, potentially mediated by the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1, a cell surface protein found(More)
PURPOSE To describe the detailed anatomy of the ciliary region of the chicken eye. METHODS Fifty-two eyes from White Leghorn chickens were examined in the course of this study. Descriptions are based on specimens examined using microdissection and bright field microscopy of sections embedded in paraffin or epon. Microdissection was assisted through the(More)
Using retinoscopy, we measured the refractive state of 96 eyes of three different strains of rats: albino Sprague-Dawley, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) with and without inherited retinal dystrophy, and lean and obese varieties of Zucker rats. Contrary to previous reports, we do not find consistent high hyperopia in the rat, but rather refractions that(More)
Sea otters are carnivorous, amphibious mammals that are active both above and under water. Accordingly, it might be expected that their eyes are adapted for both aerial and aqueous vision. We examined the anatomy and physiological optics of the sea otter eye with a view towards describing and explaining its amphibious visual characteristics. We employed(More)
We have studied natural accommodation in the eye of six specimens of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) as they were fed with fish and shrimp. Using infrared photoretinoscopy, we observed (1) that the resting refractive state of the cuttlefish was emmetropic or slightly hyperopic, (2) that accommodation took place only a fraction of a second before a strike and(More)