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We sought to identify neurotoxin(s) secreted by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes that could contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Neurotoxic factors were characterized in batches of conditioned media (CM) from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with HIV-1(ADA) and/or activated with lipopolysaccharide(More)
Compared with the visual system in human beings, the canine visual system could be considered inferior in such aspects as degree of binocular overlap, color perception, accommodative range, and visual acuity. However, in other aspects of vision, such as ability to function in dim light, rapidity with which the retina can respond to another image (flicker(More)
BACKGROUND Olfactory abnormalities are reported in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Anosmia appears to be common in dementia with Lewy bodies but not in pure Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE To determine whether anosmia improves discrimination between the Lewy body variant (LBV) of Alzheimer's disease and "pure" Alzheimer's disease. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE The validity of retinoscopy in small eyes has not been clearly established due to uncertainty regarding the source of the ocular reflections assessed during this procedure. A widely cited model which proposes that their origin is the inner limiting membrane of the retina was evaluated in the rat by comparing refractive errors measured by retinoscopy(More)
One factor peculiar to the practice of comparative ophthalmoscopy is the very large variation in ocular size of the animals examined, a factor which is ignored in current textbook treatments of the subject. We have computed values of lateral magnification, axial magnification, angular field of view and linear field of view for 19 species of terrestrial(More)
The presence of lower-field myopia (described in chickens, pigeons, quail and amphibians) allows these animals to keep the ground in focus while performing other visual tasks. A relationship has also been reported between the eye height and the degree of myopia observed. All of the animals reported in the literature to date are ground-foraging species.(More)
PURPOSE Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is characterized by inflammation and decreased production of tears containing increased levels of cytokines. The release occurs in the setting of conjunctival and lacrimal gland inflammation, potentially mediated by the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1, a cell surface protein found(More)
PURPOSE To describe the detailed anatomy of the ciliary region of the chicken eye. METHODS Fifty-two eyes from White Leghorn chickens were examined in the course of this study. Descriptions are based on specimens examined using microdissection and bright field microscopy of sections embedded in paraffin or epon. Microdissection was assisted through the(More)
Using retinoscopy, we measured the refractive state of 96 eyes of three different strains of rats: albino Sprague-Dawley, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) with and without inherited retinal dystrophy, and lean and obese varieties of Zucker rats. Contrary to previous reports, we do not find consistent high hyperopia in the rat, but rather refractions that(More)
Sea otters are carnivorous, amphibious mammals that are active both above and under water. Accordingly, it might be expected that their eyes are adapted for both aerial and aqueous vision. We examined the anatomy and physiological optics of the sea otter eye with a view towards describing and explaining its amphibious visual characteristics. We employed(More)