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BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term retention of patients in Africa's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for HIV/AIDS is essential for these programs' success but has received relatively little attention. In this paper we present a systematic review of patient retention in ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS We searched Medline,(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the relationship of viral load (VL), CD4 counts, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use to health-related quality of life (HRQL). DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of 513 HIV-infected patients. Primary outcomes were four domains of HRQL: physical functioning (PF), role function (RF), energy levels (EL), and health(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. DESIGN Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. SETTING Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed(More)
Little is known about the importance of dose timing to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a cohort comprised of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients, we measured adherence among subjects for 6 months using three methods in parallel: self-report using a visual analog scale (SR-VAS), pill count, and electronic drug monitors (EDM). We calculated two adherence(More)
Nearly a century after the death of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), historians continue to debate her legacy. We discuss her seminal work during the Crimean War (1854-1856), the nature of these interventions during the war, and her continued impact today. We argue that Florence Nightingale's influence today extends beyond her undeniable impact on the(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among the general population of the Philippines using data sources outside of the limited existing active surveillance network. METHODS We analysed aggregate HIV, HBV and HCV test results for hospital-based blood donors (BDs) and overseas Filipino worker candidates (OFWCs) that had been(More)
Medication adherence is essential to successful treatment of HIV/AIDS. Maintaining high adherence will likely prove a major challenge in Africa -- just as it has in developed nations. Despite early reports suggesting that adherence would not pose a major barrier to treatment success, more recent research shows that adherence rates in Africa are quite(More)
BACKGROUND Of 136 million babies born annually, around 10 million require assistance to breathe. Each year 814,000 neonatal deaths result from intrapartum-related events in term babies (previously "birth asphyxia") and 1.03 million from complications of prematurity. No systematic assessment of mortality reduction from tactile stimulation or resuscitation(More)
The surrogate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease is the presence of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) at a titer ≥4 in an assay using human serum as the complement source (hSBA). However, for various practical and logistical reasons, many meningococcal vaccines in use today were licensed based on a modified SBA assay that used baby rabbit(More)