Christopher James Tyler

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Compelling evidence links the recently discovered hypothalamic peptides Hypocretin/Orexin (Hcrt/Orx) to rapid eye movement sleep (REM) control and the sleep disorder narcolepsy, yet how they influence sleep-related systems is not well understood. We investigated the action of Hcrt/Orx on mesopontine cholinergic (MPCh) neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental(More)
Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is widespread in amphibian brains, where its levels have been correlated with reproductive behaviors. To better understand which neural systems are involved in central actions of AVT, we used immunocytochemistry to compare the distribution of AVT in the brains of male and female bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). AVT-immunoreactive cells(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise performance and capacity are impaired in hot, compared to temperate, conditions. Heat adaptation (HA) is one intervention commonly adopted to reduce this impairment because it may induce beneficial exercise performance and physiological and perceptual adaptations. A number of investigations have been conducted on HA but, due to large(More)
CONTEXT Cooling the neck region can improve the ability to exercise in a hot environment. It might improve performance by dampening the perceived level of thermal strain, allowing individuals to override inhibitory signals. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the enhanced ability to exercise in a hot environment observed when cooling the neck region occurs(More)
Urotensin II (UII) is a cyclic neuropeptide with strong vasoconstrictive activity in the peripheral vasculature. UII receptor mRNA is also expressed in the CNS, in particular in cholinergic neurons located in the mesopontine tegmental area, including the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) and lateral dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that(More)
The hypocretin/orexins (Hcrt/Orxs) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate stress, addiction, feeding, and arousal behaviors. They depolarize many types of central neurons and can increase [Ca2+]i in some, including those of the dorsal raphe (DR) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nuclei-two structures likely to contribute to the behavioral actions of(More)
The aim of this two-part experiment was to investigate the effect of cooling the neck on time-trial performance in hot conditions (~30°C; 50% RH). In Study A, nine participants completed a 75-min submaximal (~60% $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}} $$ ) pre-load phase followed by a 15-min self-paced time-trial (TT) on three occasions: one with a(More)
We have qualitatively and quantitatively analysed the anatomical connections within and between rat primary visual cortex (V1) and the rim region surrounding area V1, using both ortho- and retrograde anatomical tracers (biotinylated dextran amine, biocytin, cholera toxin b subunit). From the analysis of the projection patterns, and with the assumption that(More)
Exercise is impaired in hot, compared with moderate, conditions. The development of hyperthermia is strongly linked to the impairment and as a result various strategies have been investigated to combat this condition. This meta-analysis focused on the most popular strategy: cooling. Precooling has received the most attention but recently cooling applied(More)
This study identifies fundamental anatomical features of primary visual cortex, area V1 of macaque monkey cerebral cortex, i.e., features that are present in area V1 of phylogenetically distant mammals of quite different lifestyle and features that are common to other regions of cortex. We compared anatomical constituents of macaque V1 with V1 of members of(More)