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PURPOSE This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. METHODS Participants were 214 sixth-grade students randomly assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (number(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of chocolate milk (CM) as a recovery beverage following a period of increased training duration (ITD) was studied in intercollegiate soccer players. METHODS 13 subjects completed one week of normal 'baseline' training followed by four days of ITD. After each day of ITD, subjects received either a high-carbohydrate (504 kcal; CHO:(More)
BACKGROUND Although caffeine supplementation improves performance, the ergogenic effect is variable. The cause(s) of this variability are unknown. A (C/A) single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) gene influences caffeine metabolism and clinical outcomes from caffeine ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine if(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of a maximal exercise test on cognitive function in recreational athletes. DESIGN A repeated-measures design was used to compare baseline with post-cognitive function and fatigue symptoms after a maximal exercise test. SETTING Division 1 American Midwestern University, (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA). (More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvements in endurance exercise performance elicited by strength training were accurately reflected by changes in parameters of the power-duration hyperbola for high-intensity exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of strength training (N = 14) or no exercise, control (N = 5), 19 males (age: 20.6 ± 2.0(More)
The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over(More)
Reductions in fibrinolytic potential occur with both aging and physical inactivity and are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. Plasmin, the enzyme responsible for the enzymatic degradation of fibrin clots, is activated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inhibits its activation.(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise training favorably alters arterial anatomy in trained limbs, though the simultaneous effects on passively trained arteries are unclear. Thus, brachial (non-trained limb), popliteal (trained limb) and carotid total wall thickness (TWT), wall-to-lumen ratios (W:L), intima-media thickness (IMT) and lumen diameters (LD) were compared between(More)
This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg-1·min-1) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' (n = 7) and(More)