Christopher J. Schofield

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HIF is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies have defined posttranslational modification by prolyl hydroxylation as a key regulatory event that targets HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal destruction via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex. Here, we define a conserved HIF-VHL-prolyl(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. In oxygenated and iron replete cells, HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly destroyed by a mechanism that involves ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) E3 ligase complex. This process is suppressed by(More)
Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in(More)
Discovered in 1909, Chagas disease was progressively shown to be widespread throughout Latin America, affecting millions of rural people with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. With no vaccine or specific treatment available for large-scale public health interventions, the main control strategy relies on prevention of transmission, principally by(More)
The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in(More)
Human FTO gene variants are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes. Because the obesity-associated SNPs are intronic, it is unclear whether changes in FTO expression or splicing are the cause of obesity or if regulatory elements within intron 1 influence upstream or downstream genes. We tested the idea that FTO itself is involved in obesity. We(More)
Activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex is controlled by oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of prolyl and asparaginyl residues. Hydroxylation of specific prolyl residues by 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases mediates ubiquitinylation and proteasomal destruction of HIF-alpha. Hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of 31 populations of 12 and 3 species of the two main Triatominae tribes Triatomini and Rhodniini, including the most important Chagas disease vectors, were obtained. Sequence comparisons and parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses indicate that ITS-2 is a useful(More)
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values(More)