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HIF is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies have defined posttranslational modification by prolyl hydroxylation as a key regulatory event that targets HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal destruction via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex. Here, we define a conserved HIF-VHL-prolyl(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. In oxygenated and iron replete cells, HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly destroyed by a mechanism that involves ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) E3 ligase complex. This process is suppressed by(More)
Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in(More)
The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in(More)
Discovered in 1909, Chagas disease was progressively shown to be widespread throughout Latin America, affecting millions of rural people with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. With no vaccine or specific treatment available for large-scale public health interventions, the main control strategy relies on prevention of transmission, principally by(More)
The finding that the metazoan hypoxic response is regulated by oxygen-dependent posttranslational hydroxylations, which regulate the activity and lifetime of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), has raised the question of whether other hydroxylases are involved in the regulation of gene expression. We reveal that the splicing factor U2 small nuclear(More)
In the absence of a fossil record, theories relating to the evolution of protozoa have, for most of the twentieth century, been based on morphological and life cycle data despite their known limitations. However, recent advances in molecular methodology, notably the wide availability of accurate, automated DNA sequencing, have made it possible to deduce the(More)
The jumonji (JMJ) family of histone demethylases are Fe2+- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases that are essential components of regulatory transcriptional chromatin complexes. These enzymes demethylate lysine residues in histones in a methylation-state and sequence-specific context. Considerable effort has been devoted to gaining a mechanistic(More)
The activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by oxygen-dependent hydroxylation. Under normoxic conditions, hydroxylation of proline residues triggers destruction of its alpha-subunit while hydroxylation of Asn(803) in the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1 alpha (CAD) prevents its interaction with p300. Here(More)