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We developed an approach that combines distribution data, environmental geographic information system layers, environmental niche models, and phylogenetic information to investigate speciation processes. We used Ecuadorian frogs of the family Dendrobatidae to illustrate our methodology. For dendrobatids there are several cases for which there is significant(More)
We present evidence that a relatively widespread and common bat from South East Asia comprises two morphologically cryptic but acoustically divergent species. A population of the bicoloured leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros bicolor) from Peninsular Malaysia exhibits a bimodal distribution of echolocation call frequencies, with peaks in the frequency of maximum(More)
The apparent biotic affinities between the mainland and the island in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot have been interpreted as the result of frequent migrations during recent periods of low sea level. We show, using molecular phylogenies of two invertebrate and four vertebrate groups, that biotic interchange between these areas has been(More)
Taxonomic relationships within the Old World fruit bat genus, Cynopterus, have been equivocal for the better part of a century. While nomenclature has been revised multiple times on the basis of phenotypic characters, evolutionary relationships among taxa representing the entire geographic range of the genus have not been determined. We used mitochondrial(More)
The activity of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (2-APH), an antagonist of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor, was tested in several animal models of anxiolytic activity in rats and mice and compared with the activity of the standard benzodiazepine anxiolytic, diazepam. 2-APH was effective, but about 100 times less potent than diazepam in antagonising(More)
This study compared the effects of the beta-carboline anxiolytic, abecarnil, with other benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) ligands, including the full agonists diazepam and alprazolam, and the partial agonists ZK 95962 and bretazenil (Ro 16-6028), and alpidem, in the mouse four-plate test and plus-maze. The efficacy and potency of each compound was related to(More)
Many biodiversity hotspots are located in montane regions, especially in the tropics. A possible explanation for this pattern is that the narrow thermal tolerances of tropical species and greater climatic stratification of tropical mountains create more opportunities for climate-associated parapatric or allopatric speciation in the tropics relative to the(More)
The extent to which response to environmental change is mediated by species-specific ecology is an important aspect of the population histories of tropical taxa. During the Pleistocene glacial cycles and associated sea level fluctuations, the Sunda region in Southeast Asia experienced concurrent changes in landmass area and the ratio of forest to open(More)
Human-induced land use changes are causing extensive habitat fragmentation. As a result, many species are not able to shift their ranges in response to climate change and will likely need to adapt in situ to changing climate conditions. Consequently, a prudent strategy to maintain the ability of populations to adapt is to focus conservation efforts on areas(More)