Christopher J. Rivard

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Controversy exists as to whether minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represent different diseases or are manifestations within the same disease spectrum. Urinary excretion of CD80 (also known as B7.1) is elevated in patients with MCD and hence we tested whether urinary CD80 excretion might distinguish between patients(More)
One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce(More)
Minimal change disease (MCD) is characterized by increased urinary excretion of CD80, whereas focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is associated with increased serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). The aim of the study was to assess whether the simultaneous measurement of urinary CD80 and serum suPAR helps differentiate(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world (1) and is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis driven by several factors, including tissue ischemia and hyperglycemia. This abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in retinopathy, contributing to both vitreous hemorrhage(More)
UNLABELLED Fructose intake from added sugars has been implicated as a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that fructose may interact with a high-fat diet to induce fatty liver, and to determine if this was dependent on a key enzyme in fructose metabolism, fructokinase. Wild-type or fructokinase knockout mice were fed a(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that uric acid is a mediator of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid levels are a strong predictor of albuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS We analyzed data from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study, a prospective observational study. A stepwise logistic(More)
The interaction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha with the endothelium is a pivotal factor during endotoxemia. Inflammatory conditions are characterized by the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and the expression of inflammatory mediators. Previous reports indicate that inhibition of NF-kappaB activation during sepsis may be beneficial to(More)
Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga(More)
Anaerobic digestion represents one of several commercially viable processes to convert woody biomass, agricultural wastes, and municipal solid wastes to methane gas, a useful energy source. This process occurs in the absence of oxygen, and is substantially less energy intensive than aerobic biological processes designed for disposal purposes. The anaerobic(More)
Reduced AMP kinase (AMPK) activity has been shown to play a key deleterious role in increased hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetes, but the mechanism whereby this occurs remains unclear. In this article, we document that another AMP-dependent enzyme, AMP deaminase (AMPD) is activated in the liver of diabetic mice, which parallels with a significant reduction(More)