Christopher J Miller

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In early simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections, gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT), the largest component of the lymphoid organ system, is a principal site of both virus production and depletion of primarily lamina propria memory CD4+ T cells; that is, CD4-expressing T cells that previously encountered(More)
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
Immature dendritic cells are among the first cells infected by retroviruses after mucosal exposure. We explored the effects of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and its Tat transactivator on these primary antigen-presenting cells using DNA microarray analysis and functional assays. We found that HIV-1 infection or Tat expression induces interferon(More)
Despite recent insights into mucosal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, the route used by primate lentiviruses to traverse the stratified squamous epithelium of mucosal surfaces remains undefined. To determine if dendritic cells (DC) are used by primate lentiviruses to traverse the epithelial barrier of the genital tract, rhesus macaques were(More)
Chronic immune activation and progression to AIDS are observed after SIV infection in macaques but not in natural host primate species. To better understand this dichotomy, we compared acute pathogenic SIV infection in pigtailed macaques (PTs) to non-pathogenic infection in African green monkeys (AGMs). SIVagm-infected PTs, but not SIVagm-infected AGMs,(More)
The Clinic for Special Children (CSC) has integrated biochemical and molecular methods into a rural pediatric practice serving Old Order Amish and Mennonite (Plain) children. Among the Plain people, we have used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays to genetically map recessive disorders to large autozygous haplotype blocks (mean = 4.4 Mb) that(More)
In the current global AIDS pandemic, more than half of new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections are acquired by women through intravaginal HIV exposure. For this study, we explored pathogenesis issues relevant to the development of effective vaccines to prevent infection by this route, using an animal model in which female rhesus macaques(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) can cross the intact vaginal epithelium to establish a systemic infection in macaques (mac). Using this SIVmac model, we found that subcutaneous progesterone implants, which could mimic hormonally based contraceptives, thinned the vaginal epithelium and enhanced SIV vaginal transmission 7.7-fold over that observed in(More)
In the early stages of viral infection, outcomes depend on a race between expansion of infection and the immune response generated to contain it. We combined in situ tetramer staining with in situ hybridization to visualize, map, and quantify relationships between immune effector cells and their targets in tissues. In simian immunodeficiency virus(More)
In the acute stage of infection following sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), virus-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses partially control but do not eradicate infection from the lymphatic tissues (LTs) or prevent the particularly massive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in gut-associated(More)