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BACKGROUND A consensus conference on multiple system atrophy (MSA) in 1998 established criteria for diagnosis that have been accepted widely. Since then, clinical, laboratory, neuropathologic, and imaging studies have advanced the field, requiring a fresh evaluation of diagnostic criteria. We held a second consensus conference in 2007 and present the(More)
Central feedback of peripheral states of arousal influences motivational behavior and decision making. The sympathetic skin conductance response (SCR) is one index of autonomic arousal. The precise functional neuroanatomy underlying generation and representation of SCR during motivational behavior is undetermined, although it is impaired by discrete brain(More)
1. States of peripheral autonomic arousal accompany emotional behaviour, physical exercise and cognitive effort, and their central representation may influence decision making and the regulation of social and emotional behaviours. However, the cerebral functional neuroanatomy representing and mediating peripheral autonomic responses in humans is poorly(More)
Human anterior cingulate function has been explained primarily within a cognitive framework. We used functional MRI experiments with simultaneous electrocardiography to examine regional brain activity associated with autonomic cardiovascular control during performance of cognitive and motor tasks. Using indices of heart rate variability, and high- and(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging to measure brain activity during delay between reward-related decisions and their outcomes, and the modulation of this delay activity by uncertainty and arousal. Feedback, indicating financial gain or loss, was given following a fixed delay. Anticipatory arousal was indexed by galvanic skin conductance.(More)
We report the results of a consensus conference on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). We describe the clinical features of the disease, which include four domains: autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction, parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and corticospinal dysfunction. We set criteria to define the relative importance of these features. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of routine MRI in differentiating between patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and control subjects. METHODS Two neuroradiologists rated blindly and independently axial T2-weighted and proton density MR images of 54 patients with MSA, 35 patients(More)
Changes in bodily states, particularly those mediated by the autonomic nervous system, are crucial to ongoing emotional experience. A theoretical model proposes a first-order autoregulatory representation of bodily state at the level of dorsal pons, and a second-order experience-dependent re-mapping of changes in bodily state within structures such as(More)
The mechanisms by which cognitive processes influence states of bodily arousal are important for understanding the pathogenesis and maintenance of stress-related morbidity. We used PET to investigate cerebral activity relating to the cognitively driven modulation of sympathetic activity. Subjects were trained to perform a biofeedback relaxation exercise(More)