Christopher J Lengner

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Human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos but have very different biological properties, and molecular analyses suggest that the pluripotent state of human ESCs isolated so far corresponds to that of mouse-derived epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). Here we rewire the identity of conventional human ESCs into a more(More)
Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc transcription factors, but only a minority of donor somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. Here we demonstrate that reprogramming by these transcription factors is a continuous stochastic process where(More)
Both activating and null mutations of proteins required for canonical WNT signaling have revealed the importance of this pathway for normal skeletal development. However, tissue-specific transcriptional mechanisms through which WNT signaling promotes the differentiation of bone-forming cells have yet to be identified. Here, we address the hypothesis that(More)
Pluripotent cells can be derived from fibroblasts by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. A fundamental unresolved question is whether terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. We utilized transgenic and inducible expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) to reprogram mouse B(More)
Pluripotency can be induced in differentiated murine and human cells by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. We have devised a reprogramming strategy in which these four transcription factors are expressed from doxycycline (dox)-inducible lentiviral vectors. Using these inducible constructs, we derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells(More)
The presence of two active X chromosomes (XaXa) is a hallmark of the ground state of pluripotency specific to murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) invariably exhibit signs of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and are considered developmentally more advanced than their murine counterparts. We describe the establishment of XaXa hESCs derived(More)
The study of induced pluripotency is complicated by the need for infection with high-titer retroviral vectors, which results in genetically heterogeneous cell populations. We generated genetically homogeneous 'secondary' somatic cells that carry the reprogramming factors as defined doxycycline (dox)-inducible transgenes. These cells were produced by(More)
The Pou domain containing transcription factor Oct4 is a well-established regulator of pluripotency in the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst as well as in embryonic stem cells. While it has been shown that the Oct4 gene is inactivated through a series of epigenetic modifications following implantation, recent studies have detected Oct4 activity in(More)
Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of one somatic cell type to another by defined factors. However, it is not clear to what extent this type of reprogramming is able to generate fully functional differentiated cells. In(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts, whereas epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are derived from the postimplantation epiblast and display a restricted developmental potential. Here we characterize pluripotent states in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which prior to this study was considered(More)