Christopher J. Layton

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The aim of this work was to investigate the interrelated effects of glucose, nitric oxide (NO) and erythropoietin on neuronal survival in retinal cultures, thereby exploring the mechanism of neuronal death in the diabetic retina. Rat retinal cells were cultured in low (5 mM) or high (15 mM) glucose concentrations. After 9 days, cell viability was assessed(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental studies have yielded a wealth of information related to the mechanism of ganglion cell death following injury either to the myelinated ganglion cell axon or to the ganglion cell body. However, no suitable animal models exist where injury can be directed to the optic nerve head region, particularly the unmyelinated ganglion cell(More)
PURPOSE The diabetic retina exhibits decreases in endogenous nonangiogenic neurotrophins. This study hypothesized that deficiencies in systemic and retinal pigment epithelium-derived (RPE) neurotrophic factors also influence retinal changes in diabetes. METHODS Diabetes was established in Listar hooded rats with streptozotocin. Reverse transcriptase(More)
BACKGROUND There is a wide variation in the use of diagnostic tests for dry eye disease. The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of eye practitioners towards both tests and therapies available for dry eye disease. METHOD An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was used, containing both quantitative and qualitative sections. RESULTS(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of diabetes on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) expression in the rat retina. METHODS Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (62.5 mg/kg). Rats were killed after 10 weeks, and the retinal levels of PKCalpha, bFGF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), caspase-3, and(More)
Diabetes causes a panretinal neurodegeneration herein termed diabetic retinal neuropathy, which manifests in the retina early and progresses throughout the disease. Clinical manifestations include changes in the ERG, perimetry, dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity and colour vision which correlate with laboratory findings of thinning of the retinal(More)
Conjunctival melanoma is a rare but important condition encountered in ophthalmology. This paper reviews conjunctival melanoma as a clinical entity, with particular emphasis on differential diagnosis, management and prognostic factors. Relevant references were located through a comprehensive search of articles published between 1980 and early 2001 on(More)
Clinical prognostic markers in atrophic age-related macular degeneration include the extent of existing atrophy, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns and optical coherence tomography changes in the outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium interface. The prognostic implications of these findings may be used to determine not just the rate of disease(More)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary ocular tumour in adults. Despite good local control of the primary tumour with current methods, survival after the development of metastasis has remained poor over the last 30 years. After cutaneous melanoma, UM is the most common type of melanoma, and an ongoing debate exists regarding whether these conditions(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of excess glucose on retinal cellular health remains controversial, and cellular reducing equivalents, as indicators of cellular energy production, are widely used as substitute indicators of retinal cellular health. These investigations hypothesised that excess energy substrate availability, as occurs in the diabetic retina, increases(More)