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The aims of the work were (1) to develop statistical tests to identify whether substitution takes place under a covariotide model in sequences used for phylogenetic inference and (2) to determine the influence of covariotide substitution on phylogenetic trees inferred for photosynthetic and other organisms. (Covariotide and covarion models are ones in which(More)
Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding(More)
We show using PCR that psbC, atpA and petB genes are present in the plastid DNA minicircles from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum, extending the set of plastid genes identified from this organism. Unusually, the petBand atpA genes are located on the same minicircle. PCR using primers based on the "core" region found on all coding minicircles(More)
Dinoflagellates are an economically and ecologically important eukaryotic algal group. The organization of their chloroplast genome appears to be radically different from that in plants and other algae. The gene content has been dramatically reduced in dinoflagellates, with the large-scale transfer of genes to the nucleus. Most of the remaining genes encode(More)
Cytochrome c6A is a unique dithio-cytochrome of green algae and plants. It has a very similar core structure to that of bacterial and algal cytochromes c6 but is unable to fulfill the same function of transferring electrons from cytochrome f to photosystem I. A key feature is that its heme midpoint potential is more than 200 mV below that of cytochrome c6(More)
Plastid DNA was purified from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. The genes atpB, petD, psaA, psbA and psbB have been shown to reside on single-gene minicircles of a uniform size of 2.3-2.4 kb. The psaA and psbB genes lack conventional initiation codons in the expected positions, and may use GTA for translation initiation. There are marked biases in(More)
Dinoflagellate algae are notorious for their highly unusual organization of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Early studies on the dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome indicated that it encodes the same three protein-coding genes found in Plasmodium spp., but with a complex organization and transcript editing. Recent work has extended this view, showing that(More)
Chloroplasts originate through the endosymbiotic integration of a host and a photosynthetic symbiont, with processes established within the host for the biogenesis and maintenance of the nascent chloroplast. It is thought that several photosynthetic eukaryotes have replaced their original chloroplasts with others derived from different source organisms in a(More)
The persistence of coral reef ecosystems relies on the symbiotic relationship between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Genetic evidence indicates that these symbionts are biologically diverse and exhibit discrete patterns of environmental and host distribution. This makes the assessment of(More)
Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world's oldest cultivated cereals, with several lines of recent evidence indicating that it was grown in northern China from at least 10,000 cal bp. Additionally, a cluster of archaeobotanical records of P. miliaceum dated to at least 7000 cal bp exists in eastern Europe. These two centres of early(More)