Christopher J. Halkides

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In the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of the CheY protein plays an important role in regulating the swimming pattern of the cell. In vitro, CheY can be phosphorylated either by phosphotransfer from phospho-CheA or by acquiring a phosphoryl group from any of a variety of small, high-energy phosphodonor molecules such as acetyl(More)
To structurally characterize the activated state of the transiently phosphorylated signal transduction protein CheY, we have constructed an alpha-thiophosphonate derivative of the CheY D57C point mutant and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 A resolution. We have also characterized this analogue with high-resolution NMR and studied its(More)
The synthesis of 2-acetylthiamin pyrophosphate (acetyl-TPP) is described. The synthesis of this compound is accomplished at 23 degrees C by the oxidation of 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin pyrophosphate using aqueous chromic acid as the oxidizing agent under conditions where Cr(III) coordination to the pyrophosphoryl moiety and hydrolysis of both the(More)
The N delta 1 proton of His 64 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp 32, as part of the catalytic triad in serine proteases of the subtilisin family. His 64 in subtilisin has been studied by 1H and 15N NMR spectroscopy in the presence and absence of peptidyl trifluoromethyl ketones (TFMKs) that are transition state analog inhibitors. For subtilisin Carlsberg, the(More)
The phosphorus atoms of NAD+ bound within the active site of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli exhibit two NMR signals, one at delta = -9.60 +/- 0.05 ppm and one at delta = -12.15 +/- 0.01 ppm (mean +/- standard deviation of four experiments) relative to 85% H3PO4 as an external standard. Titration of epimerase.NAD+ with UMP causes a(More)
Selectively labeled samples of human H- or N-ras p21 ligated to MnIIGDP or MnIIGMPPNP were studied by electron spin-echo envelope modulation spectroscopy in order to define the protein environment around the divalent metal. We incorporated [4-13C]-labeled Asx into p21.MnIIGDP and found that the distance from the carboxyl 13C of Asp57 to MnII is(More)
Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is widely used to investigate the active sites of biological molecules in frozen solutions. Various cryoprotection techniques, particularly the addition of co-solvents, are commonly employed in the preparation of such samples. In conjunction with ESEEM studies of Mn(II) guanosine nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND The means by which the protein GAP accelerates GTP hydrolysis, and thereby downregulates growth signaling by p21Ras, is of considerable interest, particularly inasmuch as p21 mutants are implicated in a number of human cancers. A GAP "arginine finger," identified by X-ray crystallography, has been suggested as playing the principal role in the(More)
We have used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare the conformational changes produced by replacement of bound GDP by the GTP analogs guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) and guanylyl (beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate (GMPPNP) in wild-type p21ras as well as the oncogenic mutant (G12D)p21ras. We have used isotope-edited nuclear(More)
As a molecular switch, the ras protein p21 undergoes structural changes that couple recognition sites on the protein surface to the guanine nucleotide-divalent metal ion binding site. X-ray crystallographic studies of p21 suggest that coordination between threonine-35 and the divalent metal ion plays an important role in these conformational changes. Recent(More)