Learn More
Degradation of human growth hormone (hGH) at the injection site has previously been implicated as the basis for its reduced systemic availability following subcutaneous (SC) administration. The goal of these studies was to develop an animal model which would allow mass balance calculations to (i) quantify the loss at the injection site and (ii) determine(More)
Oral lipid-based drug delivery systems may include a broad range of oils, surfactants, and cosolvents. This diversity makes comparison of lipid-based formulations difficult. Although the relationship between formulation and drug absorption is understood at a conceptual level, performance in vivo cannot be predicted with confidence at present. The Lipid(More)
Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration continues to be the main route for the delivery of protein drugs due to their poor bioavailability by most non-parenteral routes. While small drug molecules are rapidly and extensively absorbed after s.c. injection, the systemic bioavailability of protein drugs is often incomplete and variable. Given the widespread use of(More)
Highly potent, but poorly water-soluble, drug candidates are common outcomes of contemporary drug discovery programmes and present a number of challenges to drug development - most notably, the issue of reduced systemic exposure after oral administration. However, it is increasingly apparent that formulations containing natural and/or synthetic lipids(More)
In recent years there has been an increase in interest in the utility of lipid based delivery systems, at least in part as a result of the effective development of lipid based products such as Sandimmun Neoral (cyclosporin), Norvir (ritonavir) and Fortovase (saquinavir). The development pathway for lipid based formulations, however, is still largely(More)
Postprandial administration of halofantrine (Hf), an important antimalarial, leads to 3- and 12-fold increases in oral bioavailability in humans and beagles, respectively, and corresponding 2.4-fold and 6.8-fold decreases in metabolic conversion to desbutylhalofantrine (Hfm). Factors contributing to the decreased postprandial metabolism of Hf could include(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux from the apical membrane of enterocytes is believed to modulate intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism by altering substrate access to the CYP3A enzyme. This interplay between P-gp and CYP3A was investigated in a rat in situ model of intestinal permeation, where a recirculating luminal perfusion of the(More)
The trend towards identification of poorly water-soluble and highly lipophilic candidate drug molecules has led to an increase in interest in intestinal lymphatic drug transport. In this article we provide a brief background to the mechanism of access of drugs to the intestinal lymph and the role of lipid digestion and absorption in the stimulation of(More)
This mini-review summarizes the relevant literature regarding the lymphatic transport of proteins after subcutaneous administration. A review of the physiology of the lymphatics and inherent anatomical differences between blood and lymph capillaries is presented followed by a brief overview of the general characteristics of protein absorption and(More)
Halofantrine hydrochloride (Hf.HCl) is a highly lipophilic phenanthrenemethanol antimalarial. The poor and erratic absorption of Hf after oral administration has been implicated in some treatment failures. Food increases the oral bioavailability of Hf in humans approximately 3-5-fold, although neither the absolute bioavailability nor the basis for the food(More)