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P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux from the apical membrane of enterocytes is believed to modulate intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism by altering substrate access to the CYP3A enzyme. This interplay between P-gp and CYP3A was investigated in a rat in situ model of intestinal permeation, where a recirculating luminal perfusion of the(More)
The relative contribution of the lymph and blood in the absorption of darbepoetin alfa (DA) from different s.c. injection sites was determined using a central lymph-cannulated sheep model. DA was administered to parallel groups either as a bolus i.v. injection (0.5 mug/kg) into the jugular vein or as a bolus s.c. injection (2 mug/kg) into the interdigital(More)
Recent studies have shown that digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can stimulate both supersaturation and precipitation. The current study has evaluated the drug, formulation and dose-dependence of the supersaturation – precipitation balance for a range of LBFs. Type I, II, IIIA/B LBFs containing medium-chain (MC) or long-chain (LC) lipids, and(More)
Orally administered testosterone (T) is ineffective in the treatment of male androgen deficiency syndromes due to extensive presystemic first-pass metabolism. In contrast, the lipophilic long-chain ester testosterone undecanoate (TU) exhibits androgenic activity that has been attributed to formation of T via systemic hydrolysis of lymphatically transported(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux and cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism within the enterocyte have been implicated as potential biochemical barriers to intestinal drug permeability. The current studies examined the in vitro intestinal permeability of verapamil, a common P-gp and CYP3A substrate, using both disappearance and appearance(More)
Drugs with low aqueous solubility commonly show low and erratic absorption after oral administration. Myriad approaches have therefore been developed to promote drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Here, we offer insight into the unique manner by which lipid-based formulations (LBFs) may enhance the absorption of poorly water-soluble(More)
To evaluate the potential for the acidic intestinal unstirred water layer (UWL) to induce drug supersaturation and enhance drug absorption from intestinal mixed micelles, via the promotion of fatty acid absorption. Using a single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model, the absorptive-flux of cinnarizine and 3H-oleic acid from oleic acid-containing intestinal(More)
The current study has examined whether drugs that are transported to the systemic circulation via the intestinal lymph (and therefore associate with lipoproteins within the enterocyte) are accessible to enterocyte-based metabolic processes. The impact of changes to the mass of lipid present within the enterocyte-based lymph lipid precursor pool (LLPP) on(More)
The influence of the size and turnover kinetics of the enterocyte-based lymph lipid precursor pool (LLPP) on intestinal lymphatic drug transport has been examined. Mesenteric lymph duct-cannulated rats were infused intraduodenally with low (2-5 mg/h) or high (20 mg/h) lipid-dose formulations containing 100 microg/h halofantrine (Hf, a model drug) and 1(More)
To investigate if drug solubility in pharmaceutical excipients used in lipid based formulations (LBFs) can be predicted from physicochemical properties. Solubility was measured for 30 structurally diverse drug molecules in soybean oil (SBO, long-chain triglyceride; TGLC), Captex355 (medium-chain triglyceride; TGMC), polysorbate 80 (PS80; surfactant) and(More)