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The recent epidemic of childhood obesity(1) has raised concern because of the possible clinical and public health consequences.(2,)(3) However, there remains a widespread perception among health professionals that childhood obesity is a largely cosmetic problem, with minor clinical effects. No systematic review has yet focused on the diverse array of(More)
Current hormone replacement therapy may not optimize cardiovascular health in women with premature ovarian failure. We compared the effects of physiological and standard sex steroid replacement regimens on cardiovascular health in these women. In an open-label, randomized, controlled crossover trial, 34 women with premature ovarian failure were randomly(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of childhood cancer can result in impaired spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), however, can enable men to achieve fatherhood, and has focused attention on gamete integrity in men with oligozoospermia. Our aim was to assess testicular function in survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS We assessed testicular(More)
In rodents, in utero exposure to exogenous estrogens including diethylstilboestrol (DES) results in major suppression of steroidogenesis in fetal testes. Whether similar effects occur in the human fetal testis is equivocal. Based on the results of the rodent studies, we hypothesised that exposure of human fetal testes to DES would result in a reduction in(More)
Testicular germ cell cancer develops from premalignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified cells that are believed to arise from failure of normal maturation of fetal germ cells from gonocytes (OCT4(+)/MAGEA4(-)) into pre-spermatogonia (OCT4(-)/MAGEA4(+)). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations based on stage of germ cell(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical presentation and sequelae, including salt-wasting crises of newly-diagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in children aged over 1 year in a contemporary population without screening. To appraise the potential benefit of newborn screening for late-presenting CAH. DESIGN Active national surveillance undertaken in(More)
—Current hormone replacement therapy may not optimize cardiovascular health in women with premature ovarian failure. We compared the effects of physiological and standard sex steroid replacement regimens on cardiovascular health in these women. In an open-label, randomized, controlled crossover trial, 34 women with premature ovarian failure were randomly(More)
Knemometry is an accurate and non-invasive method of quantifying lower leg length changes. It reveals multiple fluctuations in leg length velocity over a short period of measurement, and on the basis of this it has been proposed that short-term growth is saltatory rather than a continuous phenomenon. The technical error (TE) of the technique which is(More)
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