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Sleep loss adversely affects certain types of cognitive processing, particularly associative memory. Given that long-term potentiation (LTP) represents a putative cellular basis of learning and memory consolidation, the influence of sleep deprivation on LTP was examined. Rats were REM sleep deprived for 24, 48, or 72 h using the inverted flowerpot method in(More)
Rats learning the Morris water maze exhibit hippocampal changes in synaptic morphology and physiology that manifest as altered synaptic efficacy. Learning requires structural changes in the synapse, and multiple cell adhesion molecules appear to participate. The activity of these cell adhesion molecules is, in large part, dependent on their interaction with(More)
The angiotensin 4 receptor (AT4) subtype is heavily distributed in the dentate gyrus and CA1-CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. Neuronal pathways connecting these subfields are believed to be activated during learning and memory processing. ur laboratory previously demonstrated that application of the AT4 agonist, Norleucine1-angiotensin IV, enhanced(More)
It is increasingly evident that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc containing extracellular endopeptidases, participate in processes supporting hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of MMPs involvement in hippocampal plasticity. Acute hippocampal slices, generated from 20- to 30-day-old(More)
In recent years the role of the area postrema in the emetic reflex has been predominant and the involvement of the abdominal visceral innervation has tended to be overlooked. This paper attempts to redress the balance reflex by reviewing aspects of the existing literature and complementing this with original studies from the ferret. In view of the(More)
Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) play a role in sleep regulation in health and disease. TNFα or IL1β injection enhances non-rapid eye movement sleep. Inhibition of TNFα or IL1β reduces spontaneous sleep. Mice lacking TNFα or IL1β receptors sleep less. In normal humans and in multiple disease states, plasma(More)
Sleep is dependent upon prior brain activities, e.g., after prolonged wakefulness sleep rebound occurs. These effects are mediated, in part, by humoral sleep regulatory substances such as cytokines. However, the property of wakefulness activity that initiates production and release of such substances and thereby provides a signal for indexing prior waking(More)
Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in parallel groups of conscious rats following intravenous injection of either 1 mg/kg 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A binding site agonist), 3 mg/kg 5-methoxy 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)1H indole, succinate (a 5-hydroxytryptamine1B agonist), or saline alone, using the(More)
Symptoms commonly associated with sleep loss and chronic inflammation include sleepiness, fatigue, poor cognition, enhanced sensitivity to pain and kindling stimuli, excess sleep and increases in circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) in humans and brain levels of interleukin-1 β (IL1) and TNF in animals. Cytokines including IL1 and TNF partake(More)
Habituation is defined as a decrease in responsiveness to a repeatedly presented stimulus. The head-shake response (HSR) demonstrates several fundamental properties of habituation including sensitivity to the frequency and intensity of stimulation, and spontaneous recovery. This response shows behavioral plasticity; however the neural plasticity presumed to(More)