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Activities of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the livers of two patients with primary hyperoxaluria type I were substantially lower than those found in five control human livers. Detailed subcellular fractionation of one of the hyperoxaluric livers, compared with a control liver, showed that there was a complete absence of peroxisomal(More)
We have previously shown that in some patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), disease is associated with mistargeting of the normally peroxisomal enzyme alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) to mitochondria (Danpure, C.J., P.J. Cooper, P.J. Wise, and P.R. Jennings. J. Cell Biol. 108:1345-1352). We have synthesized, amplified, cloned, and(More)
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an atypical peroxisomal disorder, as befits a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which is itself an atypical peroxisomal enzyme. PH1 is characterized by excessive synthesis and excretion of the metabolic end-product oxalate and the progressive accumulation of insoluble calcium oxalate in the kidney(More)
A deficiency of activity of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT,EC been found in the livers of six patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH), including three in whom the tissue was obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy. AGT activity, assayed in unfractionated liver tissue, ranged from 11 to 47% of the mean(More)
The autosomal recessive disorder primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Numerous mutations and polymorphisms in the gene encoding AGT have been identified, but in only a few cases has the causal relationship between genotype and(More)
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The disease is notable for its extensive heterogeneity at the clinical, biochemical, enzymic and molecular genetic levels. A study of 116 PH1 patients over the past 8 years has(More)
The subcellular distribution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) enzyme activity and immunoreactive protein has been determined in the livers of a variety of mammalian species (marmoset, baboon, cat, rabbit, pig, sheep) using the techniques of post-embedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation.(More)
Protein-targeting sequences are specific for each intracellular compartment, so that most proteins are found at only one location within the eukaryotic cell. Increasingly, however, examples are being found of proteins that occur and function in more than one cellular compartment. In some cases, the multicompartmentalized isoforms are encoded by the same(More)
We have previously reported the isolation of a genomic clone encoding human liver-specific peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, EC, the deficient enzyme in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) (P. E. Purdue, Y. Takada, and C. J. Danpure, J. Cell Biol. 111: 2341-2351, 1990). This clone has now been characterized, revealing that the(More)