Christopher J. Clarke

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The molecular pathways involved in the cellular response to interferon (IFN)gamma have been the focus of much research effort due to their importance in host defense against infection and disease, as well as its potential as a therapeutic agent. The discovery of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway greatly enhanced our understanding of the mechanism of(More)
Autocrine priming of cells by small quantities of constitutively produced type I interferon (IFN) is a well-known phenomenon. In the absence of type I IFN priming, cells display attenuated responses to other cytokines, such as anti-viral protection in response to IFNgamma. This phenomenon was proposed to be because IFNalpha/beta receptor1 (IFNAR1) is a(More)
In sheep clinically affected with paratuberculosis, two distinct forms of microscopical pathology were recognized, related to a high or a low degree of mycobacterial colonization ("multibacillary" or "paucibacillary" presence). These forms were characterized by different types of cellular infiltrate in the ileal mucosa and submucosa. Statistical analysis(More)
A retrospective analysis was performed to determine whether coronal thoracic [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans, if viewed at the time of radiotherapy (RT) planning, would have influenced the anterior-posterior (AP) RT volumes that were administered to a group of unoperated lung cancer patients. Viewing of PET and(More)
Interferons (IFNs) were discovered as cytokines induced during and protecting from viral infection. They have been documented to play essential roles in numerous physiological processes beyond antiviral and antimicrobial defense, including immunomodulation, cell cycle regulation, cell survival, and cell differentiation. Recent data have also uncovered a(More)
The HIN-200 family was initially grouped together based on their hemopoietic expression, interferon-inducibility, nuclear localization, and characteristic 200 amino-acid domains. In this review, we performed a comprehensive search of genome databases and determined the location of previously characterized and predicted genes within the human, mouse, and rat(More)
Human GraB (hGraB) preferentially induces apoptosis via Bcl-2-regulated mitochondrial damage but can also directly cleave caspases and caspase substrates in cell-free systems. How hGraB kills cells when it is delivered by cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL) and the contribution of hGraB to CL-induced death is still not clear. We show that primary human natural(More)
Metabolic profiling (metabolomics/metabonomics) is the measurement in biological systems of the complement of low-molecular-weight metabolites and their intermediates that reflects the dynamic response to genetic modification and physiological, pathophysiological, and/or developmental stimuli. The measurement and interpretation of the endogenous metabolite(More)
Nineteen adult sheep diagnosed as having clinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) and 16 unaffected controls were examined in this study. Animals were tested for the presence of circulating antibodies of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) and lymphocytes derived from the blood, mesenteric lymph nodes and intestines were(More)