Christopher J. Burrell

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Macrophages are considered of central importance in cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vivo. In this report, we describe a novel cell-to-cell transmission model using HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) as donor cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as recipients. Virus was transmitted during a(More)
The ability of dengue virus-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages to induce permeability changes in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells was investigated. Supernatants from dengue virus type 2-infected monocyte-derived macrophages increased permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without inducing endothelial cell(More)
In this study, we have characterized the HIV DNA-containing replication complexes present in cells early after cell-to-cell infection, using sucrose gradient sedimentation and immunoprecipitation. Six hours after cell-to-cell infection, a cytoplasmic HIV replication complex sedimented as a large structure (320S). This replication complex was precipitated by(More)
Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was modelled by coculturing virus-infected cells with uninfected target cells at a ratio of 1:4. While H9 cells persistently infected with HTLV-IIIB did not contain unintegrated viral DNA detectable by Southern blotting, when cocultured with uninfected HUT-78 cells the mixed culture(More)
Astrocytes persistently infected with HIV-1 can transmit virus to CD4+ cells, suggesting that astrocytes may be a source of viral persistence and dissemination in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the fate of HIV-1 upon infection of astrocytes. HIV-1 was observed in vesicle-like structures. Unspliced genomic RNA and extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA(More)
Residual hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA can be detected in serum and liver after apparent recovery from transient infection. However, it is not known if this residual HBV DNA represents ongoing viral replication and antigen expression. In the current study, ducks inoculated with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were monitored for residual DHBV DNA following(More)
The temporal appearance and levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat, rev, nef, env and gag mRNA species were examined using a synchronized, one-step, cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection model involving HUT-78 cells and HIV- 1 persistently infected H3B cells. Individual mRNAs were quantified by RT-PCR using RNA standards transcribed in vitro from(More)
A cell clone persistently infected with human T cell-lymphotrophic virus type IIIB (H3B cells) contained mainly the multiply spliced (2 kb) and singly spliced (4.3 kb) species of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA. When H3B cells were co-cultured with susceptible HUT78 cells, cell fusion occurred within 4 h of cell mixing and was accompanied by a marked(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of dengue virus (DV) infection, with elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the sera of DV-infected patients paralleling the severity of disease and TNF-alpha release being coincident with the peak of DV production from infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in(More)