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Low-trophic level species account for more than 30% of global fisheries production and contribute substantially to global food security. We used a range of ecosystem models to explore the effects of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems, including marine mammals and seabirds, and on other commercially important species. In five well-studied(More)
Contemporary impacts of anthropogenic climate change on ecosystems are increasingly being recognized. Documenting the extent of these impacts requires quantitative tools for analyses of ecological observations to distinguish climate impacts in noisy data and to understand interactions between climate variability and other drivers of change. To assist the(More)
The impetus for the enlargement of syringes is unknown. The authors hypothesize that there is a flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from perivascular spaces into the central canal and that the flow is driven by arterial pulsations. Using horseradish peroxidase as a tracer, the CSF flow was studied in normal sheep, in sheep with damped arterial pulsations, and(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotential cells with utility in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the immunological properties and immunogenicity of allogeneic MSC remain poorly defined. Recent studies investigating their immunogenicity remain inconclusive and this has hampered their clinical application. This study investigated(More)
This paper describes a biomechanical study of axonal injury due to a blunt impact to the head. The aim of the experimental model was to produce axonal injury analogous to that seen in human trauma while measuring the dynamics of the impact and the subsequent kinematics of the head. These measurements were made in a way to facilitate the simulation of these(More)
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a CSF tracer in Sprague-Dawley rats. One group of rats received an injection of HRP in the cisterna magna and a second group was injected in the thoracic spinal subarachnoid space. The animals were sacrificed 0, 10 or 30 min after HRP injection by rapid perfusion with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. In both(More)
Fifty percent of patients with neurological deterioration from post-traumatic syringomyelia do not respond to treatment. Treatment failure is due in part to an incomplete understanding of the underlying aetiology. An animal model that mimics the human disease is required to investigate underlying pathophysiology and treatment options. A previous study was(More)
The reorganization of patterns of species diversity driven by anthropogenic climate change, and the consequences for humans, are not yet fully understood or appreciated. Nevertheless, changes in climate conditions are useful for predicting shifts in species distributions at global and local scales. Here we use the velocity of climate change to derive(More)
Axonal injury (AI), one of the principal determinants of clinical outcome after head injury, may evolve over several hours after injury, raising the future possibility of therapeutic intervention during this period. A new head impact model of AI in sheep was developed to examine pathological and physiological changes in the brain resulting from a graded(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. METHODS Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and(More)