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One of the key factors limiting the use of neural networks in many industrial applications has been the diiculty of demonstrating that a trained network will continue to generate reliable outputs once it is in routine use. An important potential source of errors arises from novel input data, that is input data which diier signiicantly from the data used to(More)
Dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with l-DOPA remains the standard pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Unfortunately, chronic l-DOPA treatment is accompanied by development of motor fluctuations and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). While serotonin (5-HT)(1A) agonists acutely reduce these complications, their prophylactic and long-term effects are(More)
Chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by the development of abnormal and excessive movements known as dyskinesia. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that indirect serotonin agonists can suppress dyskinesia without affecting the efficacy of L-DOPA. While the mechanism by which these(More)
Convergent evidence indicates that in later stages of Parkinson's disease raphestriatal serotonin neurons compensate for the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by converting and releasing dopamine derived from exogenous administration of the pharmacotherapeutic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-dopa). Because the serotonin system is not equipped with(More)
Though the most recognizable symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are motor-related, many patients also suffer from debilitating affective symptoms that deleteriously influence quality of life. Dopamine (DA) loss is likely involved in the onset of depression and anxiety in PD. However, these symptoms are not reliably improved by DA replacement therapy with(More)
Using a rat model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), the contributions of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors to axial, limb, and orolingual (ALO) abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) elicited by L-DOPA were examined. Chronic L-DOPA-treated rats received the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg; i.p.), the D2 receptor antagonist Eticlopride(More)
Depression and anxiety are the prevalent nonmotor symptoms that worsen quality of life for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although dopamine (DA) cell loss is a commonly proposed mechanism, the reported efficacy of DA replacement therapy with L-DOPA on affective symptoms is inconsistent. To delineate the effects of DA denervation and chronic L-DOPA(More)
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) acts on the central nervous system to alter energy balance and influence both food intake and sympathetically-mediated thermogenesis. CRH is also reported to inhibit food intake in several models of hyperphagia including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced eating. The recently identified CRH-related peptide, urocortin (UCN),(More)