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One of the key factors limiting the use of neural networks in many industrial applications has been the diiculty of demonstrating that a trained network will continue to generate reliable outputs once it is in routine use. An important potential source of errors arises from novel input data, that is input data which diier signiicantly from the data used to(More)
Though the most recognizable symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are motor-related, many patients also suffer from debilitating affective symptoms that deleteriously influence quality of life. Dopamine (DA) loss is likely involved in the onset of depression and anxiety in PD. However, these symptoms are not reliably improved by DA replacement therapy with(More)
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) acts on the central nervous system to alter energy balance and influence both food intake and sympathetically-mediated thermogenesis. CRH is also reported to inhibit food intake in several models of hyperphagia including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced eating. The recently identified CRH-related peptide, urocortin (UCN),(More)
Depression and anxiety are the prevalent nonmotor symptoms that worsen quality of life for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although dopamine (DA) cell loss is a commonly proposed mechanism, the reported efficacy of DA replacement therapy with L-DOPA on affective symptoms is inconsistent. To delineate the effects of DA denervation and chronic L-DOPA(More)
Convergent evidence indicates that in later stages of Parkinson's disease raphestriatal serotonin neurons compensate for the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by converting and releasing dopamine derived from exogenous administration of the pharmacotherapeutic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-dopa). Because the serotonin system is not equipped with(More)
Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)R) agonists reduce both L-DOPA- and D1 receptor (D1R) agonist-mediated dyskinesia, but their anti-dyskinetic mechanism of action is not fully understood. Given that 5-HT(1A)R stimulation reduces glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dopamine-depleted striatum, 5-HT(1A)R agonists may diminish dyskinesia in part through(More)
Chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by the development of abnormal and excessive movements known as dyskinesia. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that indirect serotonin agonists can suppress dyskinesia without affecting the efficacy of L-DOPA. While the mechanism by which these(More)
While the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown, there is overwhelming evidence that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons. Because nearly all persons suffering from PD receive l-DOPA, it is surprising that inflammation has not been examined as a potential contributor to the abnormal(More)