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Major depressive disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental(More)
Mid-Pleistocene vertebrates in North America are scarce but important for recognizing the ecological effects of climatic change in the absence of humans. We report on a uniquely rich mid-Pleistocene vertebrate sequence from Porcupine Cave, Colorado, which records at least 127 species and the earliest appearances of 30 mammals and birds. By analyzing >20,000(More)
permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies, including those employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have revealed significant disturbances in the white matter of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Both macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities have been observed across levels of FASD severity. Emerging evidence suggests that these white(More)
Paleontological information was used to evaluate and compare how Rocky Mountain mam-malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized by different durations (350, ϳ10,000–20,000, and 4 million years) and different per–100-year warming rates (1.0ЊC, 0.1ЊC, 0.06–0.08ЊC, 0.0002–0.0003ЊC per 100 years). Our goals were to determine(More)
To provide empirical evidence of species boundaries and the role of climatic change in affecting evolution, we documented evolution of the sagebrush vole, Lemmiscus curtatus, through hundreds of thousands of years by following populations from the middle Pleistocene to the present. We found that: (i) extant representatives of the species culminate a(More)
The mechanisms that enable the heart to rapidly increase ATP supply in line with increased demand have not been fully elucidated. Here we used an adenoviral system to express the photoproteins luciferase and aequorin, targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol of adult cardiomyocytes, to investigate the interrelationship between ATP and Ca(2+) in these(More)
BACKGROUND MRI studies, including recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, have shown corpus callosum abnormalities in children prenatally exposed to alcohol, especially in the posterior regions. These abnormalities appear across the range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Several studies have demonstrated cognitive correlates of callosal(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate cerebral white matter in 16 patients (ages 9-18) with myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared to 15 matched controls. Patients with myotonic dystrophy showed abnormalities in mean diffusivity compared to controls in frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter and in all individual tracts examined. Whole(More)