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The metazoan parasitic blood flukes, Schistosoma spp., infect over 200 million people worldwide and cause extensive human morbidity and mortality. Research strategies for development of anti-schistosomal agents are impeded by the organism's complex molluscan-mammalian life cycle, which limits experimental approaches and availability of material. We derived(More)
To develop tools for analysis of the acute phase response, we used suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNAs from the livers of trout in an unchallenged state and in the course of a response to injection with a Vibrio bacterin emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant. The resulting cDNA library contains 300-600bp long fragments of 25 or more(More)
In parallel with massive research efforts in human schistosomiasis over the past 30 years, persistent efforts have been made to understand the basis for compatibility and incompatibility in molluscan schistosomiasis. Snail plasma contains molecules that are toxic to trematodes, but these seem to kill only species that never parasitize the mollusc used as(More)
The fight-or-flight response prepares an animal for coping with alarming situations and their potential consequences, which include injury. The possible involvement of innate components of immunity in the response has received little attention. We determined plasma concentrations of stress hormones and lysozyme activity before and after a 10 min handling(More)
Schistosomiasis, caused by infections by human blood flukes (Trematoda), continues to disrupt the lives of over 200,000,000 people in over 70 countries, inflicting misery and precluding the individuals' otherwise reasonable expectations of productive lives. Infection requires contact with freshwater in which infected snails (the intermediate hosts of(More)
To better appreciate the mechanisms underlying the physiology of the stress response, an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) were used to study gene expression in the livers of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). For increased confidence in the discovery of candidate genes responding to stress, we conducted two separate experiments(More)
The rates of oxygen consumption, filtration and ammonia excretion by Mytilus californianus have been related to body size and to ration. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) by individuals while immersed, measured on the shore, resembled rates recorded for mussels starved in the laboratory. VO2 by M. californianus was relatively independent of change in(More)
In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our(More)
Encounters between axenically transformed sporocysts of the Puerto Rican 1 strain of Schistosoma mansoni and hemocytes and plasmaaa components of susceptible "M line" and resistant 10-R2 and 13-16-1 strains of Biomphalaria glabrata were studied in vitro. After 24 hours of incubation in susceptible hemolymph components, 94.4% of 36 observed sporocysts(More)
Recent successes in culturing intramolluscan larval stages of Schistosoma mansoni have relied on synxenic culture with a cell line (Bge) developed from embryos of a molluscan host Biomphalaria glabrata. To further facilitate progress toward control of schistosomiasis, a system for axenic in vitro culture of the parasite has now been developed. When culture(More)