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This study was carried out to investigate the early changes in erythropoietin (EPO) formation in humans in response to hypoxia. Six volunteers were exposed to simulated altitudes of 3,000 and 4,000 m in a decompression chamber for 5.5 h. EPO was measured by radioimmunoassay in serum samples withdrawn every 30 min during altitude exposure and also in two(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) induces vasodilatatory, antiaggregatory, and antiproliferative effects in vitro. To delineate potential beneficial effects of NO in preventing vascular disease in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing human erythropoietin. These animals induce polyglobulia known to be associated with a high incidence of vascular disease.(More)
Adaptation to hypoxia is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of an oxygen-regulated alpha subunit and a constitutively expressed beta subunit. Although HIF-1 is regulated mainly by oxygen tension through the oxygen-dependent degradation of its alpha subunit, in vitro it can also be modulated by(More)
The main physiological regulator of erythropoiesis is the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO), which is induced in response to hypoxia. Binding of EPO to the EPO receptor (EPO-R), a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, controls the terminal maturation of red blood cells. So far, EPO has been reported to act mainly on erythroid precursor(More)
The pulmonary endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans. However, the etiologic role of ET-1 in these diseases has not yet been established. We recently demonstrated that ET-1(More)
We have measured the partial pressure of O2 at 50% saturation (P50) and the concentration of various phosphate compounds in the erythrocytes of the bar-headed goose and the guanaco to establish the cause of the high blood O2 affinity in animals who normally reside at high altitude. The same data were obtained in the blood of two goose species, that live at(More)
The human endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene under the control of its natural promoter was transferred into the germline of mice. The transgene was expressed predominantly in the brain, lung, and kidney. Transgene expression was associated with a pathological phenotype manifested by signs such as age-dependent development of renal cysts, interstitial fibrosis of the(More)
The glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is an essential growth and survival factor for erythroid progenitor cells, and the rate of red blood cell production is normally determined by the serum EPO concentration. EPO production is inversely related to oxygen availability, so that an effective feedback loop is established, which controls erythropoiesis.(More)
The haematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin is the primary regulator of mammalian erythropoiesis and is produced by the kidney and the liver in an oxygen-dependent manner. We and others have recently demonstrated erythropoietin gene expression in the rodent brain. In this work, we show that cerebral erythropoietin gene expression is not restricted to(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) production in response to hypoxic hypoxia is known to be attenuated by simultaneous hypercapnia. This study aimed to investigate whether this inhibitory effect of hypercapnia is 1) a direct effect of carbon dioxide or mediated by changes in pH or bicarbonate, 2) affects also carbon monoxide hypoxia, and 3) influences either the(More)