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Passive stretching is commonly used to increase limb range of movement prior to athletic performance but it is unclear which component of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) is affected by this procedure. Movement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle was measured by ultrasonography in eight male participants (20.5 +/- 0.9 years)(More)
Sarcopenia and muscle weakness are well-known consequences of aging. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether a decrease in fascicle force (Ff) could be accounted for entirely by muscle atrophy. In vivo physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and specific force (Ff/PCSA) of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius (GL) muscle were assessed in a(More)
Previous studies have reported a decrease in muscle torque per cross-sectional area in old age. This investigation aimed at determining the influence of agonists muscle activation and antagonists co-activation on the specific torque of the plantarflexors (PF) in recreationally active elderly males (EM) and, for comparison, in young men (YM). Twenty-one EM,(More)
To explore the cause of higher skeletal muscle fatigue resistance in women than men, we used electrically evoked contractions (1 s on, 1 s off, 30 Hz, 2 min), which circumvent motivational bias and allow examination of contractile properties. We compared 29 men [26.5 (7.0) years old; mean (s.d.)] with 35 women [25.4 (7.6) years old]. Strength of the(More)
Although smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are often accompanied by increased peripheral muscle fatigability, the extent to which this is a feature of the disease or a direct effect of smoking per se is not known. Skeletal muscle function was investigated in terms of maximal voluntary isometric torque,(More)
This study investigated the influence of tendon elongation (TE) on postcontraction doublet (PCD) torque in the assessment of activation in the plantar flexors of nine elderly men (EM, age 73.7 +/- 3.6 yr) and nine young men (YM, age 24.7 +/- 4.7 yr). Plantar flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and activation were assessed at ankle joint angles of(More)
The metabolic cost of walking (C(W)) is increased in healthy older adults. Previously, this has been suggested to be associated with age-related decline in physiological/functional factors such as stability and muscle size and strength. Physical training can improve such factors as well as aspects of gait performance in older adults. The aim of this(More)
CONTEXT Disruptions to habitual training routines are commonly due to injury or illness and can often lead to detraining adaptations. The implications of such adaptations to the human vasculature in a trained, asymptomatic population are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of local and systemic changes in arterial diameter and blood(More)
Accurate assessment of muscle-tendon forces in vivo requires knowledge of the muscle-tendon moment arm. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can produce 2D images suitable for visualising both tendon and bone, thereby potentially allowing the moment arm to be measured but there is currently no validated DXA method for this purpose. The aims of this study(More)
The aim of this study was to critically examine the influence of body size on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in boys and men using body mass (BM), estimated fat-free mass (FFM), and estimated lower leg muscle volume (Vol) as the separate scaling variables. VO2 max and an in vivo measurement of Vol were assessed in 15 boys and 14 men. The FFM was estimated(More)