Christopher Higgins

Learn More
We describe a family of highly conserved, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) sequences, 14 of which have been identified in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and a further three in other enterobacterial species (Yersinia pseudotubercuiosis, Kiebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae). ERIC sequences are 126 bp long and appear to(More)
Expression of P-glycoprotein, the product of the MDR1 gene, confers multidrug resistance on cell lines and human tumours (reviewed in refs 1,2). P-glycoprotein (relative molecular mass 170,000) is an ATP-dependent, active transporter which pumps hydrophobic drugs out of cells, but its normal physiological role is unknown. It is a member of the ABC(More)
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization. This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein(More)
The human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein is an active transporter that pumps cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Expression of P-glycoprotein is also associated with a volume-activated chloride channel. Here we address the relationship between these two functions. Drug transport requires ATP hydrolysis while, in contrast, ATP binding is sufficient to enable(More)
ABC transporters mediate active translocation of a diverse range of molecules across all cell membranes. They comprise two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and two transmembrane domains (TMDs). Recent biochemical, structural and genetic studies have led to the ATP-switch model in which ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis, respectively, induce formation and(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter, which hydrolyses ATP and extrudes cytotoxic drugs from mammalian cells. P-gp consists of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that span the membrane multiple times, and two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We have determined projection structures of P-gp trapped at different steps(More)
BACKGROUND Indirect evidence implicates endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We investigated directly whether dysfunction and inflammation occur in vivo in the vascular endothelium of patients with OSA. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on endothelial(More)
The proU locus encodes an osmotically inducible glycine betaine transport system that is important in the adaptation to osmotic stress. We present evidence that DNA supercoiling plays a key role in the osmotic induction of proU transcription. An increase in extracellular osmolarity increases in vivo DNA supercoiling, and the expression of proU is highly(More)
The killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, is a euryhaline teleost fish capable of adapting rapidly to transfer from freshwater (FW) to four times seawater (SW). To investigate osmoregulation at a molecular level, a 5.7-kilobase cDNA homologous to human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) was isolated from a gill cDNA library from(More)