Christopher H. Utman

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We used the Heaviness of Smoking Index, a subset of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, to classify 608 cigarette smokers planning a cessation attempt as low or high in nicotine dependence. Subjects within each level of dependence were then randomly assigned to placebo, 2-mg, or 4-mg nicotine gum treatment. Subjects were also provided brief (5-10(More)
  • C H Utman
  • Personality and social psychology review : an…
  • 1997
Researchers (e.g., Butler, 1987; Elliott & Dweck, 1988; Grolnick & Ryan, 1987) have recently studied the impact of two different motivational states and have hypothesized that attempting to attain mastev (learning goal) leads to better performance than attempting to demonstrate that one has high ability (performance goal). This article presents a(More)
OBJECTIVES This study tested the hypothesis that high daily cigarette consumption and addiction to smoking are risk factors for the long-term continuation of smoking. METHODS Using longitudinal data from 986 male smokers, we entered cigarettes per day, psychological addiction, age, and education into a survival analysis as predictors of continued smoking(More)
Smoking cessation usually results in weight gain. Nicotine gum therapy has been found to reduce weight gain in the first months after cessation, but its long-term effects are not fully known. The present study randomly assigned 608 smokers to receive placebo, 2 or 4 mg nicotine gum. In a follow-up analysis to the short-term weight change results reported in(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking-related morbidity and mortality, and benefits associated with quitting, extend across the life span. Health care provider interventions enhance quitting. The present study examined perceived influence of physician advice to quit and characteristics of subjects receiving this advice. METHODS Subjects were 1,454 smokers ages 50+ with at(More)
Researchers (e.g., Butler, 1987; Elliott & Dweck, 1988; Grolnick & Ryan, 1987) have recently studied the impact oftwo different motivational states and have hypothesized that attempting to attain mastery (learning goal) leads to better performance than attempting to demonstrate that one has high ability (performance goal). This article presents a(More)
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