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In vivo bioluminescence imaging depends on light emitted by luciferases in the body overcoming the effect of tissue attenuation. Understanding this relationship is essential for detection and quantification of signal. We have studied four codon optimized luciferases with different emission spectra, including enzymes from firefly (FLuc), click beetle(More)
The study of pathogenic processes is often limited to ex vivo assays and cell-culture correlates. A greater understanding of infectious diseases would be facilitated by in vivo analyses. Therefore, we have developed a method for detecting bacterial pathogens in a living host and used this method to evaluate disease processes for strains of Salmonella(More)
In adults and children over two years of age, large cranial defects do not reossify successfully, posing a substantial biomedical burden. The osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells has been documented. This study investigates the in vivo osteogenic capability of adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) cells, BMS cells, calvarial-derived(More)
To reveal the early events and dynamics of hematopoietic reconstitution in living animals in real-time, we used bioluminescence imaging to monitor engraftment from single luciferase-labeled hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in irradiated recipients. Transplanted HSC generated discrete foci in the spleen and bone marrow (BM), at a frequency that correlated with(More)
To examine the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in metastasis, we generated human-in-mouse breast cancer orthotopic models using patient tumor specimens, labeled with optical reporter fusion genes. These models recapitulate human cancer features not captured with previous models, including spontaneous metastasis in particular, and provide a useful(More)
The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can cause a life-threatening systemic illness in humans. Despite decades of progress in animal models of listeriosis, much remains unknown about the processes of infection and colonization. Here, we report that L. monocytogenes can replicate in the murine gall bladder and provide evidence that its replication there is(More)
To advance our understanding of biological processes as they occur in living animals, imaging strategies have been developed and refined that reveal cellular and molecular features of biology and disease in real time. One rapid and accessible technology for in vivo analysis employs internal biological sources of light emitted from luminescent enzymes,(More)
A combination of targeted probes and new imaging technologies provides a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve the early detection of cancer. To develop a probe for detecting colon cancer, we screened phage display peptide libraries against fresh human colonic adenomas for high-affinity ligands with preferential binding to premalignant tissue.(More)
Control of gene expression often involves an interwoven set of regulatory processes. As information regarding regulatory pathways may be lost in ex vivo analyses, we used bioluminescence to monitor gene expression in living mammals. Viral promoters fused to firefly luciferase as transgenes in mice allowed external monitoring of gene expression both(More)
Evaluation of potential antineoplastic therapies would be enhanced by noninvasive detection of tumor cells in living animals. Because light is transmitted through mammalian tissues, it was possible to use bioluminescence to monitor (both externally and quantitatively) growth and regression of labeled human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells engrafted into(More)