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The neurotransmitter glutamate activates several classes of metabotropic receptor and three major types of ionotropic receptor--alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The involvement of glutamate mediated neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is finding increasing(More)
There is increasing evidence for the involvement of glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We suggest that glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are overactivated in a tonic rather than a phasic manner in this disorder. This continuous mild activation may lead to neuronal damage and impairment(More)
Orphenadrine has been used as an antiparkinsonian, antispastic and analgesic drug for many years. Here we show that orphenadrine inhibits [3H]MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor in homogenates of postmortem human frontal cortex with a Ki-value of 6.0 ± 0.7 μM. The NMDA receptor antagonistic(More)
The involvement of glutamate mediated neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is finding increasingly more acceptance in the scientific community. Central to this hypothesis is the assumption that in particular glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are overactivated in a tonic rather than a phasic manner. Such(More)
β-amyloid (Aβ) is widely accepted to be one of the major pathomechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD), although there is presently lively debate regarding the relative roles of particular species/forms of this peptide. Most recent evidence indicates that soluble oligomers rather than plaques are the major cause of synaptic dysfunction and ultimately(More)
The spectrum of action of flupirtine includes analgesia, muscle relaxation and neuroprotection. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism has been discussed as a possible mechanism of action of this compound with little direct evidence. The objective of the present study was to develop a plausible model to explain flupirtine's spectrum of action. A(More)
There is general agreement that moderate affinity uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists combine good efficacy and tolerability in animal models of disturbances in glutamatergic transmission. There are several theories on which properties are important for this profile including 1, rapid access to the channel at the start of pathological overactivity 2,(More)
Both the clinical tolerability and the symptomatic effects of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease have been attributed to its moderate affinity (IC(50) around 1 microM at -70 mV) for NMDA receptor channels and associated fast, double exponential blocking/unblocking kinetics and strong voltage-dependency. Most of these biophysical data have(More)
From the therapeutic point of view, the real challenge is not only to improve the symptoms, but to interfere with the pathomechanism of the disease. That is why a considerable interest has recently been devoted to developing glutamate receptors antagonists (mainly of the NMDA type) for acute and chronic neurodegeneration. Developing such a treatment that(More)
This review describes the preclinical mechanisms that may underlie the increased therapeutic benefit of combination therapy—with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI)—for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Memantine, and the AChEIs target two different aspects of AD pathology. Both(More)