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This paper presents a new supervised method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal photographs. This method uses an ensemble system of bagged and boosted decision trees and utilizes a feature vector based on the orientation analysis of gradient vector field, morphological transformation, line strength measures, and Gabor filter responses. The feature(More)
Retinal vessel segmentation algorithms are a fundamental component of automatic retinal disease screening systems. This work examines the blood vessel segmentation methodologies in two dimensional retinal images acquired from a fundus camera and a survey of techniques is presented. The aim of this paper is to review, analyze and categorize the retinal(More)
BACKGROUND UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. AIMS To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. METHODS Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007-2009 population data. Incidence was(More)
BACKGROUND An inverse association between birth weight and ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been seen in observational studies. OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine the strength and consistency of the association between birth weight and subsequent IHD. DESIGN We conducted a systematic review of observational studies. RESULTS Seventeen published studies(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess physical activity (PA) levels measured objectively using accelerometers in community-dwelling older people and to examine the associations with health, disability, anthropometric measures and psychosocial factors. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Single general practice (primary care centre), United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS(More)
The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of initial infant feeding on obesity in later life. METHODS A systematic review of published studies investigating the association between infant feeding and a measure of obesity was performed with Medline (1966 onward) and Embase (1980 onward) databases, supplemented with manual searches. Data extraction was conducted(More)
PURPOSE To quantify the variation in primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) prevalence with age, gender, race, year of publication, and survey methodology. METHODS Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for studies of OAG prevalence. Studies with defined population samplings were sought. Forty-six published observational studies of OAG prevalence (103,567(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of infant feeding method on serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 13- to 16-year-olds and a systematic review of studies (all observational) on the effects of infant feeding on cholesterol in infancy (<1 year), childhood or adolescence (1-16 years),(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether breast feeding in infancy compared with bottle feeding formula milk is associated with lower mean blood pressure at different ages. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Embase, Medline, and Web of Science databases. STUDY SELECTION Studies showing the effects of feeding in infancy on blood pressure at different ages.(More)