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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an incurable autoimmune neurodegenerative disease. Environmental factors may be key to MS prevention and treatment. MS prevalence and severity decrease with increasing sunlight exposure and vitamin D(3) supplies, supporting our hypothesis that the sunlight-dependent hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) ),(More)
Because of their central importance in gene regulation and mediating the actions of many hormones, the nuclear receptors (NRs) have long been recognized as very important biological and pharmaceutical targets. Of all the surfaces available on a given NR, the singular site for regulation of receptor activity has almost invariably been the ligand-binding(More)
The mucosal immune system mediates contact between the host and the trillions of microbes that symbiotically colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Failure to tolerate the antigens within this "extended self" can result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Within the adaptive immune system, the most significant cells modulating this interaction are Foxp3(More)
The inability to rapidly generate accurate and robust parameters for novel chemical matter continues to severely limit the application of molecular dynamics simulations to many biological systems of interest, especially in fields such as drug discovery. Although the release of generalized versions of common classical force fields, for example, General Amber(More)
A woman, fitted with a Mirena intrauterine system (IUS), presented with a positive pregnancy test and a 5-day history of per vaginam bleeding and left iliac fossa pain. Beta-hCG level was raised at 1815 IU/l and a pelvic ultrasound scan showed a normal empty uterus. An abdominal x-ray showed that the IUS was in the left hypochondrium. At laparoscopy, an(More)
Somatic mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene (ESR1), especially Y537S and D538G, have been linked to acquired resistance to endocrine therapies. Cell-based studies demonstrated that these mutants confer ERα constitutive activity and antiestrogen resistance and suggest that ligand-binding domain dysfunction leads to endocrine therapy(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from an autoimmune attack on the axon-myelin unit. A female MS bias becomes evident after puberty and female incidence has tripled in the last half-century, implicating a female sex hormone interacting with a modifiable environmental factor. These aspects of MS suggest that many female MS(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosis is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Lupus pathology is thought to reflect autoantibody-mediated damage due to a failure of B lymphocyte tolerance. Since excessive B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) expression correlates with human and murine lupus, and BAFF signals B cell survival through(More)
While small molecules have been used to induce anesthesia in a clinical setting for well over a century, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we utilize ab initio calculations to develop a novel set of CHARMM-compatible parameters for the ubiquitous modern anesthetics desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and(More)
BAFF-R (B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family receptor) regulates B lymphocyte survival, maturation, homeostasis, and self-tolerance through signaling mechanisms that are not completely understood. A spontaneous BAFF-R mutation, Bcmd-1, disrupts BAFF-R signaling. However, it is not clear why the Bcmd-1-encoded BAFF-R fails(More)