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Little is known about the signaling pathways by which motoneurons induce synapses on muscle fibers, and no receptors for synapse-inducing signals have yet been identified. Because several other inductive events in development are mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and because phosphotyrosine staining within muscle fibers is concentrated at(More)
The Knuth–Morris–Pratt (KMP) pattern-matching algorithm guarantees both independence from alphabet size and worst-case execution time linear in the pattern length; on the other hand, the Boyer–Moore (BM) algorithm provides near-optimal average-case and best-case behaviour, as well as executing very fast in practice. We describe a simple algorithm that(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides are widely used as inhibitors of gene expression in cultured cells and have been proposed as potential therapeutic agents, but it is not known to what extent they are specific for their intended target RNAs. Statistical considerations indicate that if oligonucleotides can form hybrids with mRNA molecules in vivo by means of short(More)
Major advances have occurred in our understanding of the signaling events involved in neuromuscular synapse formation. In particular, it has recently been shown that agrin is necessary for synapse formation, that acetylcholine receptor genes are specifically transcribed by synaptic nuclei in response to signals from the synaptic basal lamina, and that(More)
The properties of antisense phosphorothioate and unmodified oligodeoxynucleotides have been studied in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. We find that phosphorothioates, like unmodified oligodeoxynucleotides, can degrade Vg1 mRNA in oocytes via an endogenous RNase H-like activity. In oocytes, phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides are more stable than unmodified(More)
We report on four patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome with exostoses (TRPSE) who were not mentally retarded and review 32 previously published cases. These data enable more complete delineation of the phenotype and document the variability of the clinical and radiographic manifestations. Information on the genetics and the association with(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed by many neurons of the vertebrate nervous system, including motoneurons of many species. It has been detected immunohistochemically in both cell bodies and motor terminals of motoneurons, suggesting that it may play a role at the neuromuscular junction. In support of(More)
We present a design space explorer for the space of experimental designs. For many design problems, design decisions are determined by the consequences of the design rather than its elemental parts. To support this need, the explorer is constructed to make the designer aware of design-level options, provide a structured context for design, and provide(More)