Christopher G. England

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Nano-scale particles sized 10-400 nm administered systemically preferentially extravasate from tumor vasculature due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Therapeutic success remains elusive, however, because of inhomogeneous particle distribution within tumor tissue. Insufficient tumor vascularization limits particle transport and also results(More)
Given the highly heterogeneous character of brain malignancies and the associated implication for its proper diagnosis and treatment, finding biomarkers that better characterize this disease from a molecular standpoint is imperative. In this study, we evaluated CD146 as a potential molecular target for diagnosis and targeted therapy of glioblastoma(More)
The human anterior cruciate ligament is ruptured 200,000 times per year in the United States, resulting in medical costs of $1 billion. The standard treatment is patellar tendon autograft, but this treatment is suboptimal because of lengthy recovery time, arthritis, donor site morbidity, and degenerative joint disease. This study aimed to engineer(More)
BACKGROUND The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX) has shown promise in treating metastatic melanoma, but most patients develop resistance to treatment after 6 mo. We identified a transmembrane protein, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a cell surface receptor highly expressed by PLX-resistant melanoma. Using an S100A9 ligand, we(More)
Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration.(More)
As peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in muscle ischemia and neovascularization, it has been claimed that nanoparticles can passively accumulate in ischemic tissues through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. At this time, a quantitative evaluation of the passive targeting capabilities of nanoparticles has not been reported in PAD.(More)
Multifunctional nanoparticles with combined diagnostic and therapeutic functions show great promise in nanomedicine. Herein, we develop an organic photodynamic therapy (PDT) system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanomicelles conjugated with ∼20% chlorin e6 (PEG-Ce 6 nanomicelles), which functions as an optical imaging agent, as well as a PDT(More)
Our goal was to demonstrate that suitably derivatized monomeric RGD peptide-based PET tracers, targeting integrin αvβ3, may offer advantages in image contrast, time for imaging, and low uptake in nontarget tissues. Two cyclic RGDfK derivatives, (PEG)2-c(RGDfK) and PEG4-SAA4-c(RGDfK), were constructed and conjugated to NOTA for 64Cu labeling. Their integrin(More)
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading global health concern. Due to limited imaging and therapeutic options, PAD and other ischemia-related diseases may benefit from the use of long circulating nanoparticles as imaging probes and/or drug delivery vehicles. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated nanoparticles have shown shortened circulation(More)
Although nanotherapeutics offer a targeted and potentially less toxic alternative to systemic chemotherapy in cancer treatment, nanotherapeutic transport is typically hindered by abnormal characteristics of tumor tissue. Once nanoparticles targeted to tumor cells arrive in the circulation of tumor vasculature, they must extravasate from irregular vessels(More)