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BACKGROUND In a previous Phase 1/2b malaria vaccine trial testing the 3D7 isoform of the malaria vaccine candidate Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2), parasite densities in children were reduced by 62%. However, breakthrough parasitemias were disproportionately of the alternate dimorphic form of MSP2, the FC27 genotype. We therefore undertook a(More)
Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into(More)
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) such as defensins are ubiquitously found innate immune molecules that often exhibit broad activity against microbial pathogens and mammalian tumor cells. Many CAPs act at the plasma membrane of cells leading to membrane destabilization and permeabilization. In this study, we describe a novel cell lysis mechanism for(More)
Exosomes are small extracellular 40-100 nm diameter membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin that can mediate intercellular transfer of RNAs and proteins to assist premetastatic niche formation. Using primary (SW480) and metastatic (SW620) human isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines we compared exosome protein profiles to yield valuable insights into(More)
It is now more than 25 years since asexual blood stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum were first expressed as recombinant proteins. Although many asexual blood stage vaccine candidates have been identified, none has yet been fully evaluated in clinical trials. The results of studies in animal models, and from in vitro studies with P. falciparum, indicate(More)
Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2), one of the most abundant proteins on the surface of the merozoite stage of Plasmodium falciparum, is a potential component of a malaria vaccine, having shown some efficacy in a clinical trial in Papua New Guinea. MSP2 is a GPI-anchored protein consisting of conserved N- and C-terminal domains and a variable central(More)
The ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) is a dense-granule protein of Plasmodium falciparum which binds to the cytoskeletal structure of the erythrocyte after parasite invasion. It is currently under trial as a vaccine candidate. In an effort to characterize further the antibody responses to this antigen, we have panned two independent(More)
Several merozoite surface proteins are being assessed as potential components of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, the cause of the most serious form of human malaria. One of these proteins, merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2), is unusually hydrophilic and contains tandem sequence repeats, characteristics of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A(More)
Defensins are a class of ubiquitously expressed cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) that play an important role in innate defense. Plant defensins are active against a broad range of microbial pathogens and act via multiple mechanisms, including cell membrane permeabilization. The cytolytic activity of defensins has been proposed to involve interaction(More)
Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides that serve as important components of host innate immune defenses, often by targeting cell membranes of pathogens. Oligomerization of defensins has been linked to their antimicrobial activity; however, the molecular basis underpinning this process remains largely unclear. Here we show that the plant defensin(More)