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Mice lacking the imprinted Cdk inhibitor p57(KIP2) have altered cell proliferation and differentiation, leading to abdominal muscle defects; cleft palate; endochondral bone ossification defects with incomplete differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes; renal medullary dysplasia; adrenal cortical hyperplasia and cytomegaly; and lens cell(More)
In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells prevent cell cycle progression through the control of critical cell cycle regulators. A human gene was identified that encodes the protein Chk1, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 protein kinase, which is required for the DNA damage checkpoint. Human Chk1 protein was modified in response to DNA damage.(More)
Cell-cycle arrest is thought to be required for differentiation of muscle cells. However, the molecules controlling cell-cycle exit and the differentiation step(s) dependent on cell-cycle arrest are poorly understood. Here we show that two Cdk inhibitors, p21(CIP1) and p57(KIP2), redundantly control differentiation of skeletal muscle and alveoli in the(More)
Cell cycle exit is required for terminal differentiation of many cell types. The retinoblastoma protein Rb has been implicated both in cell cycle exit and differentiation in several tissues. Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). The main effectors that down-regulate Cdk activity to activate Rb are not known in the lens or other(More)
We describe here changes in the regulatory region of SV40 that influence its growth potential in cultured cells. Laboratory strains of papovaviruses BK and JC differ in the sequence of their regulatory regions from archetypes that have not been passaged in cell culture. These archetypes lack sequence repeats in the regulatory region; duplications that occur(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing globally, and posing significant health problems for millions of people worldwide. Diet-induced obesity is a major contributor to the global pandemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reduced ability of muscle tissue to regulate glucose homeostasis plays a major role in the development and(More)
We describe here a long-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that can be used to amplify complete simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA with high fidelity, and we show that authentic, viable virus can be produced from molecular clones of the PCR-amplified viral DNAs. A commercial long-PCR kit that employed a combination of Taq and GB-D polymerases was used, together(More)
INTRODUCTION Non-dialytic treatment (NDT) has become a recognized and important modality of treatment in end stage renal disease (ESRD) in certain groups of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, little is known about the prognosis of these NDT patients in terms of hospitalization rates and survival. We analyzed our experience in managing these NDT(More)