Christopher F Rowley

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BACKGROUND There are conflicting data in the medical literature regarding the degree of immune restoration (as measured by CD4 cell count) in patients who commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), compared with those with HIV infection alone. METHODS We(More)
Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations in human immunodeficiency viruses encode amino acid substitutions in positions that disrupt CTL targeting, thereby increasing virus survival and conferring a relative fitness benefit. However, it is now clear that CTL escape mutations can also confer a fitness cost, and there is increasing evidence to suggest(More)
BACKGROUND Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) is widely used to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1. This may result in NVP resistance in both mother and infant. The significance of low levels of NVP resistance mutations in infants treated with NVP-containing antiretroviral treatment (ART) is unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine the presence of(More)
HIV-1 drug resistance mutations have been detected at low frequencies after single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). We investigated the relationship between these "minor variant" NVP-resistant viruses and clinical outcome with NVP-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). An allele-specific quantitative PCR(More)
Parvovirus B19 is a common infection in adults and children. There are reports of secondary parvovirus infection in immunocompromised persons, but no reports of symptomatic secondary infection in healthy persons. We describe a healthy 39-year-old woman who presented with fever, rash, and arthralgia. Her symptoms were thought most compatible with parvovirus(More)
CD4 counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load testing are essential components of HIV care, and making these tests available in resource-limited settings is critical to the roll-out of HIV treatment globally. Until recently, the evidence supporting the importance of laboratory monitoring in resource-limited settings was lacking, but there is now a(More)
In recent years, highly sensitive assays have been developed that detect HIV-1 drug resistance mutations when present at less than 1% of the viral population. These assays are powerful tools when attempting to determine the clinical implications of these low level resistant virions after the administration of single-dose nevirapine. This report demonstrates(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to evaluate for the presence of drug resistance to HIV medications in treatment-naive individuals in Botswana. METHODS Two different populations were evaluated for evidence of HIV drug resistance at three different geographical locations in Botswana. In the first study population, consisting of pregnant females(More)
BACKGROUND Abacavir (ABC) may be associated with a small, increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults, possibly related to cytokine-mediated inflammation. METHODS To evaluate the induction of inflammatory cytokine transcription by ABC, we used samples from women randomized to receive zidovudine/lamivudine/ABC (Trizivir) or(More)
We describe an observational study of clinical, virologic and drug resistance profiles in HIV-positive antiretroviral adherent subjects with stable low level viremia (LLV) 50-1,000 copies/mL for more than 12 months. Subjects were followed from time of first detectable viral load (VL). In total, 102 episodes of LLV were detected among 80 individuals. The(More)