Christopher E Whalley

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The effects of HI-6 and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) on soman-induced lethality, time to death and several cholinergic parameters in rats were compared to understand the beneficial action of HI-6. Treatment with atropine sulfate (ATS) or HI-6 alone protected against 1.2 and 2.5 LD50s of soman respectively, whereas 2-PAM or methylated atropine (AMN) alone(More)
To improve toxicity estimates from sublethal exposures to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA), it is necessary to generate mathematical models of the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nerve agents. However, current models are based on representative data sets generated with different routes of exposure and in different species and are designed(More)
Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the(More)
Sub-acute exposure to anti-cholinesterase organophosphorous compounds induces, in humans, cognitive and emotional deficits which include depression, anxiety, emotional lability, and schizophrenic-like symptoms. Neuroleptic drugs used to treat similar clinical conditions bind to serotonergic (S2) and dopaminergic (D2) receptors, suggesting that these sites(More)
Synaptosomes were incubated at various time intervals following injection of 120 micrograms/kg SC of soman or sarin or with various concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-2) M) of soman or sarin in vitro. Total cholinesterase (ChE) activities in each brain region were also measured. Following soman injection, sodium-dependent, high affinity choline uptake (SDHACU)(More)
The fluoride reactivation process was evaluated for measuring the level of sarin or soman nerve agents reactivated from substrates in plasma and tissue from in vivo exposed guinea pigs (Cava porcellus), in blood from in vivo exposed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and in spiked human plasma and purified human albumin. Guinea pig exposures ranged from 0.05(More)
Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are among the most lethal chemicals known to man. Children are predicted to be vulnerable to CWNA exposure because of their smaller body masses, higher ventilation rates and immature central nervous systems. While a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in younger animals have been(More)
The intracarotid artery quick injection technique of Oldendorf was utilized to determine the Brain Uptake Index (BUI) of radio-labeled peptides in comparison with 3H2O or 14C-antipyrine as counterlabels. The normalized BUI values for 3H-MIF-I, 3H-alpha-MSH and 14C-AVP were 13.7, 9.6 and 13.0 respectively at 15 sec after injection consistent with their(More)