Christopher Downing

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We present a new approach to the cocktail party problem that uses a cortronic artificial neural network architecture (Hecht-Nielsen, 1998) as the front end of a speech processing system. Our approach is novel in three important respects. First, our method assumes and exploits detailed knowledge of the signals we wish to attend to in the cocktail party(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies(More)
Commercial real estate expected returns and expected rent growth rates are time-varying. Relying on transactions data from a cross-section of U.S. metropolitan areas, we find that up to 30% of the variability of realized returns to commercial real estate can be accounted for by expected return variability, while expected rent growth rate variability(More)
and seminar participants at the following conferences for useful comments: the AREUEA, the XXXVI EWGFM, the FMA European meeting, the SAET meetings in Vigo, and the SAFE center at the University of Verona. We are especially grateful to an anonymous referee for many suggestions that have greatly improved the paper. All remaining errors are our own. Abstract(More)
This paper calculates loan-by-loan estimates of commercial real estate implied volatility using all commercial mortgages in 206 public CMBS deals from 1996 through 2005 — a total of over 14,000 loans. The implied volatilities average about 20–24% per annum, with some differences across property types. Using these implied volatilities, we compute the(More)
Since the discovery of the causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine to prevent high-risk HPV infections have been at the forefront of modern medical research. HPV causes 530,000 cervical cancer cases worldwide, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in(More)
This paper presents a general, nonlinear version of existing multifactor models, such as Longstaff and Schwartz (1992). The novel aspect of our approach is that rather than choosing the model parameterization out of " thin air " , our processes are generated from the data using approximation methods for multifactor continuous-time Markov processes. In(More)
Non-melanoma skin cancers represent a major cause of morbidity after organ transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the most common cutaneous malignancies seen in this population, with a 65-100 fold greater incidence in organ transplant recipients compared to the general population. In recent years, human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta genus(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi) based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous(More)