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Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of(More)
AIMS To evaluate cost-effectiveness of eight interventions for reducing alcohol-attributable harm and determine the optimal intervention mix. METHODS Interventions include volumetric taxation, advertising bans, an increase in minimum legal drinking age, licensing controls on operating hours, brief intervention (with and without general practitioner(More)
This article presents the cost-effectiveness results of a randomised controlled trial conducted in two Australian cities. The trial was designed to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine versus methadone in the management of opioid dependence. The trial utilised a flexible dosing regime that was tailored to the clinical need of(More)
A new form of the Kerr solution is presented. The solution involves a time coordinate which represents the local proper time for free-falling observers on a set of simple trajectories. Many physical phenomena are particularly clear when related to this time coordinate. The chosen coordinates also ensure that the solution is well behaved at the horizon. The(More)
BACKGROUND Injuries caused by both non-use of and substandard helmets in motorcycle accidents place a substantial cost on both the Vietnamese government and on victims and their families who are unfortunate enough to experience such an event. OBJECTIVE To estimate Vietnamese households' willingness to pay (WTP) for a standard motorcycle helmet and to(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential health benefits and cost savings of an alcohol tax rate that applies equally to all alcoholic beverages based on their alcohol content (volumetric tax) and to compare the cost savings with the cost of implementation. DESIGN AND SETTING Mathematical modelling of three scenarios of volumetric alcohol taxation for the(More)
The use of heroin in Australia results in disproportionate harm. Although the evidence suggests that a relatively low proportion of the population aged 14 years and over have ever used (1.4%) heroin or have used it in the past 12 months (0.2%), heroin use remains a significant cause of death, injury, illness and social harm. Research demonstrates that being(More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS Increasing the price of alcohol is consistently shown to reduce the average level of consumption. However, the evidence for the effect of increasing the price on high-intensity drinking is both limited and equivocal. The aim of this analysis is to estimate the effect of changes in price on patterns of consumption. DESIGN AND METHODS(More)