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A recently developed method of defining rain areas for the purpose of verifying precipitation produced by numerical weather prediction models is described. Precipitation objects are defined in both forecasts and observations based on a convolution (smoothing) and thresholding procedure. In an application of the new verification approach, the forecasts(More)
Real-time forecasts of five landfalling Atlantic hurricanes during 2005 using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) (ARW) Model at grid spacings of 12 and 4 km revealed performance generally competitive with, and occasionally superior to, other operational forecasts for storm position and intensity. Recurring errors include 1)(More)
The authors develop and apply an algorithm to define coherent areas of precipitation, emphasizing mesoscale convection, and compare properties of these areas with observations obtained from NCEP stage-IV precipitation analyses (gauge and radar combined). In Part II, fully explicit 12–36-h forecasts of rainfall from the Weather Research and Forecasting model(More)
W hile the observational study of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) has been active since the 1940s (e.g., Newton 1950 and references within), until the Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX) there were no studies designed to sample multiscale aspects of these systems throughout the majority of their life cycles. Previous field(More)
We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give some equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenus map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors; the former condition turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions, a fact which(More)
We describe an alternate construction of some of the basic rings introduced by Fontaine in p-adic Hodge theory. In our construction, the central role is played by the ring of p-typical Witt vectors over a p-adic valuation ring, rather than the Witt vectors over a ring of positive characteristic. This suggests the possibility of forming a meaningful global(More)
Herein, a summary of the authors' experiences with 36-h real-time explicit (4 km) convective forecasts with the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) during the 2003–05 spring and summer seasons is presented. These forecasts are compared to guidance obtained from the 12-km operational Eta Model, which employed convective(More)
An understanding of human responses to hypoxia is important for the health of millions of people worldwide who visit, live, or work in the hypoxic environment encountered at high altitudes. In spite of dozens of studies over the last 100 years, the basic mechanisms controlling acclimatization to hypoxia remain largely unknown. The AltitudeOmics project(More)